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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 325; doi:10.3390/ijms17030325

Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination

1
,
1,2,* , 1,2
and
2,3,4,*
1
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
3
Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
4
School of Biological Sciences, Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Molecular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1210 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Moreover, a remarkably higher serum antibody titer was also demonstrated after 28 days in the vaccinated fish with QSS (45 mg/L) than those vaccinated fish without QSS (p < 0.05), but lower than the IP immunized fish (p < 0.05). Significant upregulation of IgM gene expression has also been identified in the tissues of skin, gill, spleen and kidney from the immunized fish in comparison to the control fish. Taken together, the present study indicated that QSS was able to dramatically evoke systemic and mucosal immune responses in immunized fish. Therefore, QSS might be a promising adjuvant candidate for fish vaccination via an immersion administering route. View Full-Text
Keywords: Quillaja saponaria saponins; adjuvant; vaccination; Scophthalmus maximus; relative percent of survival (RPS) Quillaja saponaria saponins; adjuvant; vaccination; Scophthalmus maximus; relative percent of survival (RPS)
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Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Huang, J.; Li, J. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 325.

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