Next Article in Journal
Changes in Immunogenicity during the Development of Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Preliminary Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells
Previous Article in Journal
The Indeterminate Domain Protein ROC1 Regulates Chilling Tolerance via Activation of DREB1B/CBF1 in Rice
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 286; doi:10.3390/ijms17030286

The Utilization of the Immune System in Lung Cancer Treatment: Beyond Chemotherapy

1
The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, the New Territories, Hong Kong, China
2
School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, the New Territories, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Rita I. Young
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [205 KB, uploaded 25 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Lung cancer is ranked first worldwide as one of the main cancers in terms of prevalence and mortality rate. The development of effective treatment strategies against lung cancer is therefore of paramount importance. Traditionally, chemotherapy was employed in the treatment of various cancers. However, the non-specific nature of the actions of chemotherapeutic drugs and the potential for tumors to develop resistance to these drugs may render chemotherapy a less favorable option for cancer treatment. Immunotherapy provides an alternative strategy for this purpose. It involves the utilization of the immune system and the immune effector cells to elicit an immune response to the tumors, thereby eliminating them. Strategies include the administration of pro-inflammatory cytokines for immune stimulation, the removal of immunological checkpoints using monoclonal antibodies, and the use of cancer vaccines to enhance immunity against tumors. This article summarizes the above strategies, highlights the reasons why immunotherapy is superior to chemotherapy for the purpose of tumor removal, and reviews the recent clinical studies comparing the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing immunotherapy and chemotherapy. The article also describes advances in immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of lung cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; immune system lung cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; immune system
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, C.W.H.; Tsui, S.K.W.; Law, B.M.H.; So, W.K.W.; Tang, F.W.K.; Wong, C.-L. The Utilization of the Immune System in Lung Cancer Treatment: Beyond Chemotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 286.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top