Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize
Next Article in Special Issue
Liensinine- and Neferine-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Primary Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes and Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes
Previous Article in Journal
ERα Mediates Estrogen-Induced Expression of the Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor Gene BRMS1
Previous Article in Special Issue
Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 157; doi:10.3390/ijms17020157

Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Beijing Military Command, Beijing 100700, China
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, No. 210 Hospital of PLA, Dalian 116021, China
3
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
4
Department of Microecology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
5
Bayi Brain Diseases Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of Beijing Military Command, Beijing 100700, China
6
Editorial Department, Journal of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
7
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
8
School of Public Health, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2916 KB, uploaded 26 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

We previously reported that arsenic (As) impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV) in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH) may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; thyroid hormone receptor; CaMK IV; cerebellum; retinoid X receptor arsenic; thyroid hormone receptor; CaMK IV; cerebellum; retinoid X receptor
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Guan, H.; Li, S.; Guo, Y.; Liu, X.; Yang, Y.; Guo, J.; Li, S.; Zhang, C.; Shang, L.; Piao, F. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 157.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top