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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1834; doi:10.3390/ijms17111834

Factors Affecting the Baseline and Post-Treatment Scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Japanese Version before and after Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy

1
Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8510, Japan
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Niigata Cancer Center Hospital, 2-15-3 Kawagishi-cho, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8566, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dario Marchetti
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [948 KB, uploaded 3 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Our objectives were to (1) investigate the feasibility of the use of the Japanese version of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R); (2) identify the clinical factors influencing the HVLT-R scores of patients undergoing whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT); and (3) compare the neurocognitive function (NCF) after WBRT in different dose fractionation schedules. We administered the HVLT-R (Japanese version) before (baseline) and at four and eight months after WBRT in 45 patients who received either therapeutic (35Gy-in-14, n = 16; 30Gy-in-10, n = 18) or prophylactic (25Gy-in-10, n = 11) WBRT. Sixteen patients dropped out before the eight-month examination, due mostly to death from cancer. The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) 80–100 group had significantly higher baseline total recall (TR) scores (p = 0.0053), delayed recall (DR) scores (p = 0.012), and delayed recognition (DRecog) scores (p = 0.0078). The patients aged ≤65 years also had significantly higher TR scores (p = 0.030) and DRecog scores (p = 0.031). The patients who underwent two examinations (worse-prognosis group) had significantly decreased DR scores four months after WBRT compared to the baseline (p = 0.0073), and they were significantly more likely to have declined individual TR scores (p = 0.0017) and DR scores (p = 0.035) at four months. The eight-month HVLT-R scores did not significantly decline regardless of the WBRT dose fractionation. The baseline NCF was determined by age and KPS, and the early decline in NCF is characteristic of the worse-prognosis group. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain metastasis; whole-brain radiation therapy; Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised; neurocognitive function brain metastasis; whole-brain radiation therapy; Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised; neurocognitive function
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Saito, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kanemoto, A.; Nakano, T.; Abe, E.; Aoyama, H. Factors Affecting the Baseline and Post-Treatment Scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Japanese Version before and after Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1834.

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