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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1766; doi:10.3390/ijms17101766

The Efficacy of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
CIBERSAM, BioAraba Research Institute, OSI Araba, Department of Psychiatry, Araba University Hospital, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), Olaguibel Street 29, Vitoria 01004, Spain
2
Department of Psychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, 6-11-11 Kitakarasuyama, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8577, Japan
3
Multimodal Imaging Group-Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
5
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0016, Japan
6
Geriatric Mental Health Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
7
Campbell Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
8
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Centro Asociado de Vitoria, Pedro de Asúa Street 2, Vitoria 01008, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guiting Lin
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Abstract

Several studies have investigated the relationship between non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in schizophrenia patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to review the efficacy of NPIs on peripheral serum and plasma BDNF in subjects with schizophrenia (including schizoaffective disorder). Meta-analyses were conducted to examine the effects of NPIs on blood BDNF levels by using the standardized mean differences (SMDs) between the intervention groups and controls. In total, six randomized controlled trials with 289 participants were included. Of them, five studies used exercise, physical training or diet products. One study used cognitive training. Overall, the BDNF levels in the NPI group increased significantly compared with the control groups (SMD = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07 to 1.83, p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses indicated beneficial effects of a non-exercise intervention on peripheral BDNF levels (SMD = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.74, p = 0.01). Meta-regression analyses showed that the completion rate influenced the variation in SMD (p = 0.01). Despite insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion, our results suggest that use of NPIs as adjunctive treatments, specifically non-exercise interventions, may affect positively serum or plasma BDNF in patients with schizophrenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; non-pharmacological interventions; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); meta-analyses; randomized controlled trials schizophrenia; non-pharmacological interventions; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); meta-analyses; randomized controlled trials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanada, K.; Zorrilla, I.; Iwata, Y.; Bermúdez-Ampudia, C.; Graff-Guerrero, A.; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, M.; González-Pinto, A. The Efficacy of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1766.

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