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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1757; doi:10.3390/ijms17101757

Differential Amino Acid, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Perpetuations Involved in a Subtype of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Chinese Medicine Cold Pattern

1
Department of Rheumatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of TCM, Zhengzhou 450000, China
2
Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China
4
School of Medicine, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, China
5
Institute for Advancing Translational Medicine in Bone & Joint Diseases, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong 00852, Hong Kong, China
6
Department of Scientific Research Administration, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China
7
Department of Rheumatology, People Hospital of Yichun City, Yichun 336000, China
8
Jinan University & Hong Kong Baptist University Joint Laboratory of Innovative Drug Development, Institute of Biomedicine (Guangzhou), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
9
Institute of Basic Theory of TCM, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
10
E-Institute of Chinese Traditional Internal Medicine, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, Shanghai 201203, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Molecular Medicine & Molecular Drug Discovery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2022 KB, uploaded 21 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Pattern classification is a key approach in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and it is used to classify the patients for intervention selection accordingly. TCM cold and heat patterns, two main patterns of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) had been explored with systems biology approaches. Different regulations of apoptosis were found to be involved in cold and heat classification in our previous works. For this study, the metabolic profiling of plasma was explored in RA patients with typical TCM cold or heat patterns by integrating liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) platforms in conjunction with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Three main processes of metabolism, including amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid were focused on for function analysis. The results showed that 29 and 19 differential metabolites were found in cold and heat patterns respectively, compared with healthy controls. The perturbation of amino acid metabolism (increased essential amino acids), carbohydrate metabolism (galactose metabolism) and lipid metabolism, were found to be involved in both cold and heat pattern RA. In particular, more metabolic perturbations in protein and collagen breakdown, decreased glycolytic activity and aerobic oxidation, and increased energy utilization associated with RA cold pattern patients. These findings may be useful for obtaining a better understanding of RA pathogenesis and for achieving a better efficacy in RA clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; Traditional Chinese Medicine; cold pattern; heat pattern; metabolic pathways rheumatoid arthritis; Traditional Chinese Medicine; cold pattern; heat pattern; metabolic pathways
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Guo, H.; Niu, X.; Gu, Y.; Lu, C.; Xiao, C.; Yue, K.; Zhang, G.; Pan, X.; Jiang, M.; Tan, Y.; Kong, H.; Liu, Z.; Xu, G.; Lu, A. Differential Amino Acid, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Perpetuations Involved in a Subtype of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Chinese Medicine Cold Pattern. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1757.

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