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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18185-18223; doi:10.3390/ijms160818185

Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease

1,2,†
,
1,†
and
1,†,*
1
Medical Clinic, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz 55131, Germany
2
Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz 55131, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: G. Jean Harry
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2037 KB, uploaded 5 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; endothelial dysfunction; oxidative stress; inflammation; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; glucagon-like peptide analogs cardiovascular disease; endothelial dysfunction; oxidative stress; inflammation; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; glucagon-like peptide analogs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Steven, S.; Münzel, T.; Daiber, A. Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 18185-18223.

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