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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9772-9793; doi:10.3390/ijms16059772

Changing the Face of Kynurenines and Neurotoxicity: Therapeutic Considerations

1
MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, Semmelweis u. 6, Szeged H-6725, Hungary
2
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged H-6726, Hungary
3
Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, Eötvös utca 6, Szeged H-6720, Hungary
4
Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center University of Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6, Szeged H-6725, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1139 KB, uploaded 29 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Kynurenines are the products of tryptophan metabolism. Among them, kynurenine and kynurenic acid are generally thought to have neuroprotective properties, while 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid are considered neurotoxic. They participate in immunoregulation and inflammation and possess pro- or anti-excitotoxic properties, and their involvement in oxidative stress has also been suggested. Consequently, it is not surprising that kynurenines have been closely related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. More information about the less-known metabolites, picolinic and cinnabarinic acid, evaluation of new receptorial targets, such as aryl-hydrocarbon receptors, and intensive research on the field of the immunomodulatory function of kynurenines delineated the high importance of this pathway in general homeostasis. Emerging knowledge about the kynurenine pathway provides new target points for the development of therapeutical solutions against neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: kynurenines; neurotoxicity; neurodegeneration kynurenines; neurotoxicity; neurodegeneration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bohár, Z.; Toldi, J.; Fülöp, F.; Vécsei, L. Changing the Face of Kynurenines and Neurotoxicity: Therapeutic Considerations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9772-9793.

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