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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29148-29160; doi:10.3390/ijms161226149

Primary Phenomenon in the Network Formation of Endothelial Cells: Effect of Charge

Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Academic Editors: Malcolm D’Souza and Charles Perrin
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 7 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution Chemical Kinetics)
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Abstract

Blood vessels are essential organs that are involved in the supply of nutrients and oxygen and play an important role in regulating the body’s internal environment, including pH, body temperature, and water homeostasis. Many studies have examined the formation of networks of endothelial cells. The results of these studies have revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects the interactions of these cells and modulates the network structure. Though almost all previous simulation studies have assumed that the chemoattractant VEGF is present before network formation, vascular endothelial cells secrete VEGF only after the cells bind to the substrate. This suggests VEGF is not essential for vasculogenesis especially at the early stage. Using a simple experiment, we find chain-like structures which last quite longer than it is expected, unless the energetically stable cluster should be compact. Using a purely physical model and simulation, we find that the hydrodynamic interaction retard the compaction of clusters and that the chains are stabilized through the effects of charge. The charge at the surface of the cells affect the interparticle potential, and the resulting repulsive forces prevent the chains from folding. The ions surrounding the cells may also be involved in this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial cells; network formation; simulation method; charged particle system; fluid dynamics endothelial cells; network formation; simulation method; charged particle system; fluid dynamics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Arai, S. Primary Phenomenon in the Network Formation of Endothelial Cells: Effect of Charge. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 29148-29160.

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