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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27796-27815; doi:10.3390/ijms161126068

Molecular, Cellular and Functional Effects of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury: A Review

Institute of Histology and Embryology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mala Hora 4, Martin 03601, Slovakia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terrence Piva
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
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Abstract

Radiation therapy is the most effective non-surgical treatment of primary brain tumors and metastases. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury to the central nervous system. Radiation-induced brain injury can damage neuronal, glial and vascular compartments of the brain and may lead to molecular, cellular and functional changes. Given its central role in memory and adult neurogenesis, the majority of studies have focused on the hippocampus. These findings suggested that hippocampal avoidance in cranial radiotherapy prevents radiation-induced cognitive impairment of patients. However, multiple rodent studies have shown that this problem is more complex. As the radiation-induced cognitive impairment reflects hippocampal and non-hippocampal compartments, it is of critical importance to investigate molecular, cellular and functional modifications in various brain regions as well as their integration at clinically relevant doses and schedules. We here provide a literature overview, including our previously published results, in order to support the translation of preclinical findings to clinical practice, and improve the physical and mental status of patients with brain tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: irradiation; radiation-induced brain injury; cognitive impairment; subventricular zone; hippocampus; interventional therapy irradiation; radiation-induced brain injury; cognitive impairment; subventricular zone; hippocampus; interventional therapy
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Balentova, S.; Adamkov, M. Molecular, Cellular and Functional Effects of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27796-27815.

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