Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator
AbstractTissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mediates a number of processes that are pivotal for synaptogenesis and remodeling of synapses, including proteolysis of the brain extracellular matrix, degradation of adhesion molecules, activation of neurotrophins, and activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Abnormalities in these processes have been consistently described in psychotic disorders. In this paper, we review the physiological roles of tPA, focusing on conditions characterized by low tPA activity, which are prevalent in schizophrenia. We then describe how tPA activity is influenced by lifestyle interventions and nutritional supplements that may ameliorate psychotic symptoms. Next, we analyze the role of tPA in the mechanism of action of hormones and medications effective in mitigating psychotic symptoms, such as pregnenolone, estrogen, oxytocin, dopamine D3 receptor antagonists, retinoic acid, valproic acid, cannabidiol, sodium nitroprusside, N-acetyl cysteine, and warfarin. We also review evidence that tPA participates in the mechanism by which electroconvulsive therapy and cigarette smoking may reduce psychotic symptoms. View Full-Text
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Hoirisch-Clapauch, S.; Nardi, A.E. Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27550-27560.
Hoirisch-Clapauch S, Nardi AE. Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(11):27550-27560.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Nardi, Antonio E. 2015. "Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 11: 27550-27560.