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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27005-27014; doi:10.3390/ijms161126008

Immunoregulatory Cell Depletion Improves the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy-Generated Cancer Vaccines

British Columbia Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael R. Hamblin and Ying-Ying Huang
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
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Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT)-generated cancer vaccine represents an attractive potential application of PDT, therapeutic modality destroying targeted lesions by localized photooxidative stress. Since immunoregulatory cell activity has become recognized as a major obstacle to effective cancer immunotherapy, the present study examined their participation in the therapeutic effect of PDT cancer vaccine. Following protocols from previous studies, mouse with squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII tumors were vaccinated by SCCVII cells treated by PDT and response monitored by tumor size measurement. The effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the numbers of Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were determined by antibody staining followed by flow cytometry, while their impact on PDT vaccine therapy was evaluated by monitoring changes in tumor responses. Cyclophosphamide effectively reduced the numbers of Tregs, which became elevated following PDT vaccine treatment, and this resulted in an increase in the vaccine’s effectiveness. A similar benefit for the therapy outcome with PDT vaccine was attained by ATRA treatment. The activities of Tregs and MDSCs thus have a critical impact on therapy outcome with PDT vaccine and reducing their numbers substantially improves the vaccine’s effectiveness. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; cancer vaccines; immunoregulatory cells; cyclophosphamide; all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) photodynamic therapy; cancer vaccines; immunoregulatory cells; cyclophosphamide; all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Korbelik, M.; Banáth, J.; Saw, K.M. Immunoregulatory Cell Depletion Improves the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy-Generated Cancer Vaccines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27005-27014.

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