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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26880-26913; doi:10.3390/ijms161125991

Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy

1
Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral & Cardiovascular Diseases (SIRIC), Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
2
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
3
Biohealth Products Research Center (BPRC), Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
4
Ubiquitous Healthcare & Anti-aging Research Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
5
Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
6
Department of Biomedical Chemistry, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea
7
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716, Korea
8
Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
9
National Primate Research Center (NPRC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Ochang 28116, Korea
10
Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 29 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Classification of Human Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [998 KB, uploaded 10 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ionizing radiation (IR), such as X-rays and gamma (γ)-rays, mediates various forms of cancer cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Among them, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe are the main mechanisms of IR action. DNA damage and genomic instability contribute to IR-induced cancer cell death. Although IR therapy may be curative in a number of cancer types, the resistance of cancer cells to radiation remains a major therapeutic problem. In this review, we describe the morphological and molecular aspects of various IR-induced types of cell death. We also discuss cytogenetic variations representative of IR-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Most importantly, we focus on several pathways and their associated marker proteins responsible for cancer resistance and its therapeutic implications in terms of cancer cell death of various types and characteristics. Finally, we propose radiation-sensitization strategies, such as the modification of fractionation, inflammation, and hypoxia and the combined treatment, that can counteract the resistance of tumors to IR. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer therapy; ionizing radiation (IR); resistance; cell death; DNA damage; prognostic markers; therapeutic targets cancer therapy; ionizing radiation (IR); resistance; cell death; DNA damage; prognostic markers; therapeutic targets
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, B.M.; Hong, Y.; Lee, S.; Liu, P.; Lim, J.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, T.H.; Chang, K.T.; Hong, Y. Therapeutic Implications for Overcoming Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26880-26913.

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