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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26463-26472; doi:10.3390/ijms161125962

Long Non-Coding RNAs in Endometrial Carcinoma

1
Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 25, Graz A-8036, Austria
2
Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO171BJ, UK
3
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
4
Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, Graz A-8036, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Constantinos Stathopoulos
Received: 7 September 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [496 KB, uploaded 4 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Endometrial carcinoma (EC), the second most common form of gynaecological malignancy, can be divided into two distinct sub-types: Type I tumours arise from hyperplastic endometrium and typically effect women around the time of menopause, whereas type II tumours arise in postmenopausal women from atrophic endometrium. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of non-protein coding molecules that have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of cancer including gynaecological tumours. Although they play critical physiological roles in cellular metabolism, their expression and function are deregulated in EC compared with paired normal tissue, indicating that they may also participate in tumour initiation and progression. For instance, the lncRNA MALAT-1 is down-regulated in EC samples compared to normal or hyperplastic endometrium, whereas the lncRNA OVAL is down-regulated in type II disease but up-regulated in type I disease. Other notatble lncRNAs such as HOTAIR, H19 and SRA become up-regulated with increasing EC tumour grade and other features associated with poor prognosis. In the current review, we will examine the growing body of evidence linking deregulated lncRNAs with specific biological functions of tumour cells in EC, we will highlight associations between lncRNAs and the molecular pathways implicated in EC tumourigenesis and we will identify critical knowledge gaps that remain to be addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: long non-coding RNAs; endometrial carcinoma; cancer long non-coding RNAs; endometrial carcinoma; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Smolle, M.A.; Bullock, M.D.; Ling, H.; Pichler, M.; Haybaeck, J. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Endometrial Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26463-26472.

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