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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25912-25933; doi:10.3390/ijms161025912

Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Autónoma University, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Unit of Dermatology, Barbastro Hospital, 22300 Barbastro, Spain
Aragón Health Sciences Institute, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Department of Medicine and Medical Divisions, University of Alcalá, 28801 Madrid, Spain
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10022, USA
Unit of Dermatology, San Jorge Hospital, 22005 Huesca, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael R. Hamblin
Received: 16 August 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3515 KB, uploaded 28 October 2015]   |  


Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; methyl-aminolevulinic acid; aminolevulinic acid; actinic keratosis; basal cell carcinoma; Bowen disease; squamous cell carcinoma; tumor resistance photodynamic therapy; methyl-aminolevulinic acid; aminolevulinic acid; actinic keratosis; basal cell carcinoma; Bowen disease; squamous cell carcinoma; tumor resistance

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lucena, S.R.; Salazar, N.; Gracia-Cazaña, T.; Zamarrón, A.; González, S.; Juarranz, Á.; Gilaberte, Y. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 25912-25933.

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