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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23279-23299; doi:10.3390/ijms161023279

Liver Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs) Due to Oxidative Stress in Vitro and in Vivo

1,2,†
,
1,†
,
1,2,* , 1
,
1
,
1,2
,
1
and
1,2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bing Yan
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3218 KB, uploaded 25 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

With the applications of quantum dots (QDs) expanding, many studies have described the potential adverse effects of QDs, yet little attention has been paid to potential toxicity of QDs in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs in mice and murine hepatoma cells alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12). CdTe QDs administration significantly increased the level of lipid peroxides marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in the livers of treated mice. Furthermore, CdTe QDs caused cytotoxicity in AML 12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was likely mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of apoptosis. An increase in ROS generation with a concomitant increase in the gene expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53, the pro-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and a decrease in the anti-apoptosis gene Bax, suggested that a mitochondria mediated pathway was involved in CdTe QDs’ induced apoptosis. Finally, we showed that NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) deficiency blocked induced oxidative stress to protect cells from injury induced by CdTe QDs. These findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in the activation of Nrf2 signaling that confers protection against CdTe QDs-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum dots; oxidative stress; Nrf2; toxicity mechanisms quantum dots; oxidative stress; Nrf2; toxicity mechanisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, T.; Hu, Y.; Tang, M.; Kong, L.; Ying, J.; Wu, T.; Xue, Y.; Pu, Y. Liver Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs) Due to Oxidative Stress in Vitro and in Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 23279-23299.

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