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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13624-13636; doi:10.3390/ijms150813624
Article

TNF-α Blocker Effect of Naringenin-Loaded Sericin Microparticles that Are Potentially Useful in the Treatment of Psoriasis

1,†
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5,†
, 6
, 5
 and 5,7,*
Received: 19 May 2014; in revised form: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols)
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Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the effect of combined use of the racemic flavanone Naringenin (NRG) and the protein sericin as TNF-α blockers. Sericin (SMs) and (R/S) NRG-loaded Sericin (SNRGMs) microparticles were prepared by spray-drying, characterized in terms of morphology and particle size distribution, and encapsulation efficiency was determined. Concerning morphology and particle size distribution of microparticles, results indicated that they were not affected by the presence of NRG. The encapsulation efficiency was almost quantitative (93%), thus proving that sericin can be advantageously loaded with (R/S) NRG. Biological evaluation of (R/S) NRG, SMs and SNRGMs was then performed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). SNRGMs resulted cytotoxic at the higher dose used (200 μg/mL) and the effect was greater than (R/S) NRG alone. Moreover, even if sericin alone was not effective in suppressing LPS-induced serum TNF-α levels, SNRGMs loaded with 9.3% of (R/S) NRG were significantly more potent than (R/S) NRG alone. In summary, this study provides the proof of concept that sericin-based microspheres loaded with TNF-α-blockers could contribute to the down regulation of the cytokine and represents the starting point for the development of new topical formulations for the treatment of middle-stage psoriasis.
Keywords: flavanones; Naringenin; sericin; microparticles; psoriasis; anti-inflammatory activity; TNF-α flavanones; Naringenin; sericin; microparticles; psoriasis; anti-inflammatory activity; TNF-α
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chlapanidas, T.; Perteghella, S.; Leoni, F.; Faragò, S.; Marazzi, M.; Rossi, D.; Martino, E.; Gaggeri, R.; Collina, S. TNF-α Blocker Effect of Naringenin-Loaded Sericin Microparticles that Are Potentially Useful in the Treatment of Psoriasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 13624-13636.

AMA Style

Chlapanidas T, Perteghella S, Leoni F, Faragò S, Marazzi M, Rossi D, Martino E, Gaggeri R, Collina S. TNF-α Blocker Effect of Naringenin-Loaded Sericin Microparticles that Are Potentially Useful in the Treatment of Psoriasis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(8):13624-13636.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chlapanidas, Theodora; Perteghella, Sara; Leoni, Flavio; Faragò, Silvio; Marazzi, Mario; Rossi, Daniela; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Collina, Simona. 2014. "TNF-α Blocker Effect of Naringenin-Loaded Sericin Microparticles that Are Potentially Useful in the Treatment of Psoriasis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 8: 13624-13636.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert