Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11555-11565; doi:10.3390/ijms150711555
Article

Critical Role for the Protons in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells: Nuclear Sphingomyelinase Induced-Damage

1,†,* email, 2,†,‡, 1,2email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 2email and 2email
Received: 7 May 2014; in revised form: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
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Abstract: Proliferating thyroid cells are more sensitive to UV-C radiations than quiescent cells. The effect is mediated by nuclear phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin metabolism. It was demonstrated that proton beams arrest cell growth and stimulate apoptosis but until now there have been no indications in the literature about their possible mechanism of action. Here we studied the effect of protons on FRTL-5 cells in culture. We showed that proton beams stimulate slightly nuclear neutral sphingomyelinase activity and inhibit nuclear sphingomyelin-synthase activity in quiescent cells whereas stimulate strongly nuclear neutral sphingomyelinase activity and do not change nuclear sphingomyelin-synthase activity in proliferating cells. The study of neutral sphingomyelinase/sphingomyelin-synthase ratio, a marker of functional state of the cells, indicated that proton beams induce FRTL-5 cells in a proapoptotic state if the cells are quiescent and in an initial apoptotic state if the cells are proliferating. The changes of cell life are accompanied by a decrease of nuclear sphingomyelin and increase of bax protein.
Keywords: protons; thyroid cells; sphingomyelin; neutral-sphingomyelinase; apoptosis; sphingomyelin-synthase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Albi, E.; Perrella, G.; Lazzarini, A.; Cataldi, S.; Lazzarini, R.; Floridi, A.; Ambesi-Impiombato, F.S.; Curcio, F. Critical Role for the Protons in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells: Nuclear Sphingomyelinase Induced-Damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 11555-11565.

AMA Style

Albi E, Perrella G, Lazzarini A, Cataldi S, Lazzarini R, Floridi A, Ambesi-Impiombato FS, Curcio F. Critical Role for the Protons in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells: Nuclear Sphingomyelinase Induced-Damage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(7):11555-11565.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Albi, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Lazzarini, Andrea; Cataldi, Samuela; Lazzarini, Remo; Floridi, Alessandro; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco S.; Curcio, Francesco. 2014. "Critical Role for the Protons in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells: Nuclear Sphingomyelinase Induced-Damage." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 7: 11555-11565.


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