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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8443-8457; doi:10.3390/ijms15058443
Article

Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

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Received: 21 February 2014; in revised form: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine)
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Abstract: Palmultang (PM) is an herbal decoction that has been used to treat anorexia, anemia, general prostration, and weakness due to chronic illness since medieval times in Korea, China, and Japan. The present study focused on the inhibitory effects of PM on the production of inflammatory factors and on the activation of mechanisms in murine macrophages. PM suppressed the expression of nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory proteins by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and by inducing heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Collectively, our results explain the anti-inflammatory effect and inhibitory mechanism of PM in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Keywords: palmultang; inducible nitric oxide synthase; heme oxygenase-1; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase palmultang; inducible nitric oxide synthase; heme oxygenase-1; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, Y.-C.; Jeong, Y.H.; Cho, W.-K.; Gu, M.-J.; Ma, J.Y. Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8443-8457.

AMA Style

Oh Y-C, Jeong YH, Cho W-K, Gu M-J, Ma JY. Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5):8443-8457.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun H.; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min-Jung; Ma, Jin Y. 2014. "Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 5: 8443-8457.


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