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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8443-8457; doi:10.3390/ijms15058443

Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

Korean Medicine (KM)-Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 461-24, Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine)
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Abstract

Palmultang (PM) is an herbal decoction that has been used to treat anorexia, anemia, general prostration, and weakness due to chronic illness since medieval times in Korea, China, and Japan. The present study focused on the inhibitory effects of PM on the production of inflammatory factors and on the activation of mechanisms in murine macrophages. PM suppressed the expression of nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory proteins by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and by inducing heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Collectively, our results explain the anti-inflammatory effect and inhibitory mechanism of PM in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Keywords: palmultang; inducible nitric oxide synthase; heme oxygenase-1; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase palmultang; inducible nitric oxide synthase; heme oxygenase-1; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, Y.-C.; Jeong, Y.H.; Cho, W.-K.; Gu, M.-J.; Ma, J.Y. Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8443-8457.

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