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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 19106-19118; doi:10.3390/ijms151019106

Protein/Arabinoxylans Gels: Effect of Mass Ratio on the Rheological, Microstructural and Diffusional Characteristics

1
Research Center for Food and Development, CIAD, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
2
Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Polymers and Their Assemblies)
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Abstract

Wheat bran arabinoxylan (WBAX) gels entrapping standard model proteins at different mass ratios were formed. The entrapment of protein affected the gel elasticity and viscosity values, which decreased from 177 to 138 Pa. The presence of protein did not modify the covalent cross-links content of the gel. The distribution of protein through the network was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In mixed gels, protein aggregates forming clusters were detected at protein/polysaccharide ratios higher than 0.25. These clusters were not homogeneously distributed, suggesting that WBAX and protein are located in two different phases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dm) of proteins during release from mixed gels was investigated for mass ratios of 0.06 and 0.12. For insulin, Dm increased significantly from 2.64 × 107 to 3.20 × 107 cm2/s as the mass ratio augmented from 0.06 to 0.12. No significant difference was found for Dm values of ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin released from the mixed gels. The results indicate that homogeneous protein/WBAX gels can be formed at low mass ratios, allowing the estimation of Dm by using an analytical solution of the second Fick’s law. View Full-Text
Keywords: arabinoxylan; ferulic acid; protein; phase separation; controlled release arabinoxylan; ferulic acid; protein; phase separation; controlled release
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Berlanga-Reyes, C.M.; Carvajal-Millan, E.; Hicks, K.B.; Yadav, M.P.; Rascón-Chu, A.; Lizardi-Mendoza, J.; Toledo-Guillén, A.R.; Islas-Rubio, A.R. Protein/Arabinoxylans Gels: Effect of Mass Ratio on the Rheological, Microstructural and Diffusional Characteristics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 19106-19118.

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