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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18131-18147; doi:10.3390/ijms151018131

Thermoase-Derived Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates and Membrane Ultrafiltration Peptide Fractions Have Systolic Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

1
Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 9 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Proteins and Peptides Derived from Food)
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Abstract

Thermoase-digested flaxseed protein hydrolysate (FPH) samples and ultrafiltration membrane-separated peptide fractions were initially evaluated for in vitro inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities. The two most active FPH samples and their corresponding peptide fractions were subsequently tested for in vivo antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The FPH produced with 3% thermoase digestion showed the highest ACE- and renin-inhibitory activities. Whereas membrane ultrafiltration resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in ACE inhibition by the <1 and 1–3 kDa peptides, only a marginal improvement in renin-inhibitory activity was observed for virtually all the samples after membrane ultrafiltration. The FPH samples and membrane fractions were also effective in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHR with the largest effect occurring after oral administration (200 mg/kg body weight) of the 1–3 kDa peptide fraction of the 2.5% FPH and the 3–5 kDa fraction of the 3% FPH. Such potent SBP-lowering capacity indicates the potential of flaxseed protein-derived bioactive peptides as ingredients for the formulation of antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals. View Full-Text
Keywords: antihypertensive; hypertension; bioactive peptides; thermoase; flaxseed; angiotensin converting enzyme; renin; spontaneously hypertensive rat; membrane ultrafiltration; systolic blood pressure antihypertensive; hypertension; bioactive peptides; thermoase; flaxseed; angiotensin converting enzyme; renin; spontaneously hypertensive rat; membrane ultrafiltration; systolic blood pressure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nwachukwu, I.D.; Girgih, A.T.; Malomo, S.A.; Onuh, J.O.; Aluko, R.E. Thermoase-Derived Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates and Membrane Ultrafiltration Peptide Fractions Have Systolic Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 18131-18147.

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