Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 1237-1254; doi:10.3390/ijms15011237

Article
Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Thiazole, Pyridone, Pyrazole, Chromene, Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfonamide Moiety
Elham S. Darwish *, Azza M. Abdel Fattah , Fawzy A. Attaby and Oqba N. Al-Shayea
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt; E-Mails: azza682000@yahoo.com (A.M.A.F.); fattaby@hotmail.com (F.A.A.); org.chemo@yahoo.com (O.N.A.-S.)
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: elham_darwish@yahoo.com; Tel.: +20-100-588-1771; Fax: +202-570-8480.
Received: 10 November 2013; in revised form: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 /
Published: 17 January 2014

Abstract

: This study aimed for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds incorporating sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents via a versatile, readily accessible N-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3). The 2-pyridone derivatives were obtained via reaction of cyanoacetamide with acetylacetone or arylidenes malononitrile. Cycloaddition reaction of cyanoacetamide with salicyaldehyde furnished chromene derivatives. Diazotization of 3 with the desired diazonium chloride gave the hydrazone derivatives 13ae. Also, the reactivity of the hydrazone towards hydrazine hydrate to give Pyrazole derivatives was studied. In addition, treatment of 3 with elemental sulfur and phenyl isothiocyanate or malononitrile furnished thiazole and thiophene derivatives respectively. Reaction of 3 with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt 17 which reacted in situ with 3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and methyl iodide afforded the thiazole and ketene N,S-acetal derivatives respectively. Finally, reaction of 3 with carbon disulfide and 1,3-dibromopropane afforded the N-[4-(aminosulfonyl) phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)acetamide product 22. All newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by considering the data of both elemental and spectral analysis. The compounds were evaluated for both their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and showed promising results.
Keywords:
sulfamoyl; acrylamide; Pyrazole; pyridones; thiophene; thiazole; antimicrobial activity

1. Introduction

Cyanoacetamides and their related heterocyclic derivatives have generated a great deal of attention due to their interesting biological and therapeutic value; their pharmaceutical activities include: antimicrobial [1,2], antifungal [3], insulin releasing [4], carbonic anhydrase inhibitory [5], anti-inflammatory [6], and antitumor properties [7]. Some active sulfonamides as antibacterials are also known for their immunmodifying effects [8,9]. In addition, several thiazole derivatives possess important pharmacological activities and therefore they are useful materials in drug research. Over the past few decades, the literature has been enriched with progressive findings about the anticonvulsant activities of various substituted thiazole derivatives [1014] that are of interest as potential neuroprotective agents [15,16]. Some 2-pyridones are also reported to possess antitumor [17], antibacterial [18] and other biological activities [19,20]. In view of these facts and as a continuation of our research program on the chemistry of butanamide [21,22], the present investigation aimed to synthesize and characterize newer hydrazones, pyridones, acrylamide, Pyrazole, thiadiazole, and thiophene incorporating sulfonamide moiety. It was found that N-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3) is an excellent building block for the synthesis of the target objectives.

2. Results and Discussion

One reason of our interest in amines is related to the conversion possibility of their NH2 group to the NHCOCH2CN group, which leads to cyanoacetamide with further useful functionalization at this position [23,24]. Cyanoacetamide 3 was synthesized by cyanoacetylation of 1 with 3,5-dimetyl-1-cyanoacetyl Pyrazole (2) [25] as previously described (Scheme 1).

Thus, the Knoevengel condensation of the cyanoacetamide 3 with aromatic aldehydes namely benzaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, and p-chlorobenzaldehyde furnished the corresponding arylidene derivatives 5ac (Scheme 2). The IR spectrum of compound 5a, taken as a typical example of the series prepared, revealed absorption bands at 1680, 2220 and 3362 cm−1 corresponding to carbonyl, nitrile and NH functions, respectively. Its 1H-NMR spectrum showed signals at δ 8.32 and 10.70 (D2O-exchangeable) due to CH and NH protons in addition to two aromatic protons at δ 7.81–7.83. Its mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak at m/z 327. Pyridin-2(1H)-ones 7ac was obtained through the reaction of the arylidene derivatives 5ac with malononitrile in dioxane containing piperidine as catalyst. One-pot reactions of the cyanoacetamide derivative 3 with malononitrile and the same aldehydes (1:1:1 molar ratio) at reflux temperature in the presence of piperidine afforded the 2-pyridone derivatives 7ac. Spectroscopic data as well as elemental analyses of the obtained products were in complete agreement with the assigned structures 7ac. In addition, when the cyanoacetamide 3 was reacted with acetylacetone in dioxane in the presence of a catalytic amount of triethylamine, the cyclocondensation reaction occurred and the 2-pyridinone derivatives 10 were smoothly afforded. It can be postulated that the reaction initially proceeds via a nucleophilic attack to form the Michael adduct which in turn cyclized and eliminated two water molecules, affording the final product (Scheme 2).

Similarly, cyclocondensation of cyanoacetamide 3 with salicyaldehyde in dioxane in the presence of a catalytic amount of piperidine afforded 2-iminochromene 11 in high yield. On the other hand, by interaction of 3 with salicyaldehyde in the presence of AcOH/AcONa, chromenone 12 was obtained in reasonably good yield. The structure of compound 12 was further confirmed through its synthesis upon hydrolysis of 11 with ethanolic HCl. (Scheme 3). The IR spectrum of the reaction product 11 revealed the disappearance of cyano absorption band and showed absorption bands at 1680, 3244 and 3318 cm−1 corresponding to carbonyl and two NH functions, respectively. Its 1H-NMR spectrum showed two D2O-exchangeable signal at δ 9.29 and 13.11 due to two NH protons, in addition to an aromatic multiplet in the region 7.58–7.83. It mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak at m/z 343 while 1H-NMR spectrum of 12 showed one D2O-exchangeable signal at δ 10.88 due to one NH proton.

Next, we studied the reactivity of the active methylene group present in compound 3 towards diazonium salts. Thus, cyanoacetamide 3 coupled with diazonium salts, derived from the appropriate aromatic amines (4-methylaniline, 4-methoxyaniline, aniline, 4-chloroaniline, and methyl anthranilate) in pyridine to afford the respective hydrazones 13ae (Scheme 4). Analytical and spectral data of the latter reaction products are all consistent with the proposed structures.

Further elucidation of the structure of 13a,b came from the reaction with hydrazine hydrate to furnish the Pyrazole products 14a,b. The structures of compounds 14a,b were confirmed based on elemental analysis and spectral data (see Experimental section).

In view of the growing biological importance of thiazole derivatives, it was considered of interest to synthesize some new derivative of thiazole. Thus, the reaction of compound 3 with phenyl isothiocyanate and elemental sulfur gave the thiazole-2-thione derivative 15. The reaction of cyanoacetamide 3 with elemental sulfur and malononitrile gave the thiophene derivative 16 (Scheme 5). Analytical and spectral data of the products are in agreement with the proposed structure (see Experimental section).

The reactivity of cyanoacetamide 3 towards isothiocyanate was investigated. Thus, when 3 was left to react with phenyl isothiocyanate in dimethylformamide, in the presence of potassium hydroxide, at room temperature, the corresponding potassium salt 17 was obtained. Heterocyclization of the intermediate 17 with chloroacetone or 3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one furnished in each case, one isolable product (as tested by TLC). Probably the reaction proceeds via nucleophilic displacement of the halogen atom to give an S-alkylated intermediate followed by loss of water of the latter intermediate to give thiazole derivatives 18 and 19 as the final products. The structures of the products 18 and 19 as well as the rejection of 18′ were determined from spectroscopic and elemental analytical data. Analytical and spectral data of the product are in agreement with the proposed structure (see Experimental section). Furthermore, the non-isolated potassium salt was methylated by treatment with methyl iodide to afford the novel ketene N,S-acetal 20 (Scheme 6). The structure of the synthesized product was established on the basis of their elemental analysis and spectral data (see Experimental section).

Stirring the cyanoacetamide 3 with carbon disulfide in the presence of potassium hydroxide in N,N-dimethylformamide followed by cycloalkylation with 1,3-dibromopropane afforded N-[4-(amino-sulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)acetamide (22) (Scheme 7). The IR spectra of compound 22 showed characteristic bands for NH, CH–aliphatic, C≡N and C=O groups. 1H-NMR spectrum of compound 22 showed signals for dithiene moiety at δ 2.18 ppm (m, 2H, J = 6.80 Hz, CH2), 3.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.60 Hz, CH2), 3.19 (t, 2H, J = 6.60 Hz, CH2). Mass spectrum of 22 showed a molecular ion peak at m/z: 355 with a base peak at m/z: 183 (100%).

2.1. Screening for Antimicrobial Activity

The newly synthesized compounds 5a, 5c, 7b, 7c, 10, 11, 13b, 14a, 15, 16, 18, 19 and 22 were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae (RCMB-010010) (SP) and Bacillis subtilis (RCMB-010067) (BS) as examples of Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCMB-010043) (PA) and Escherichia coli (RCMB-010052) (EC) as examples of Gram-negative bacteria. They were also evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB-02568) (AF), Syncephalastrum racemosum (RCMB-05922) (SR), Geotricum candidum (RCMB-05097) (GC) and Candida albicans (RCMB-05036) (CA) fungal strains. Inhibition zone diameter (IZD) in mm was used as criterion for the antimicrobial activity using the diffusion technique [2628]. The fungicide Amphotericin B and the bactericides Ampicillin and Gentamicin were used as references to evaluate the potency of the tested compounds under the same conditions. The results are depicted in Table 1. As seen from the data present in Table 1, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillis subtilis are sensitive to all tested compounds except compounds 11 and 16; furthermore, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is sensitive to compounds 5a, 7c and 15, while Escherichia coli is sensitive to 5a, 7b, 7c, 10, 13b, 14a, 15, 18, 19 and 22 except compounds 11 and 16. All tested compounds except compound 16 exhibit antifungal activity against the three tested fungi species Aspergillus fumigatus, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Geotricum candidum. Also the Candida albicans strain is sensitive to compounds 5a, 5c, 7c, 10, 11. The high activity of 5a, 7c and 10 is attributed to the presence of pharmacological active arylidene moiety in compound 5a and pyridone ring in 7c and 10. The inactivity of compound 16 against the tested bacteria and fungi is due to the presence of a thiophene ring.

3. Experimental Section

3.1. General Experimental Procedures

All melting points were measured on an Electrothermal Gallenkamp apparatus (Weiss-Gallenkamp, London, UK). The infrared spectra were recorded in potassium bromide discs on a Pye Unicam SP3300 and Shimadzo FT IR 8101 PC infrared spectrophotometers (Pye Unicam Ltd., Cambridge, UK and Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan, respectively). The 1H-NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury VXR-300 spectrometer (300 MHz, Vernon Hills, IL, USA). The mass spectra were recorded on a GCMS-Q1000-EX Shimadzu and GCMS 5988-A HP spectrometers (Kyoto, Japan), the ionizing voltage was 70 eV. Elemental analyses were carried out at the Micro-analytical Center of Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. The biological evaluation of the products was carried out in the Medical Mycology Laboratory of the Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology of Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The starting material 3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one was prepared as previously reported in the literature [29,30].

3.2. Synthetic Procedures

3.2.1. 2-Cyano-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (3)

A mixture of 1 (3.44 g, 20 mmol) and 3,5-dimetyl-1-cyanoacetyl Pyrazole (2) (3.26 g, 20 mmol) in dioxane (20 mL) was refluxed for 3 h. The reaction mixture was poured into crushed ice. The resulting precipitate was filtrated off, dried, and crystallized from DMF/MeOH (1:3) to give 3; Yield (70%), mp 248 °C (from DMF/MeOH) (lit. mp 230 °C) [31]; IR (KBr) νmax: 3337, 3236, 3102 (NH, NH2), 2269 (C≡N), 1687 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.96 (s, 2H, CH2), 7.29 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.77 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.80 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 10.63 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH). MS m/z (%): 241 (M+ + 2, 0.7), 240 (M+ + 1, 5.8), 239 (M+, 12.7), 238 (100), 222 (34.9), 172 (25.3), 159 (29.7), 132 (19.1), 108 (47.3), 92 (46.3), 90 (25.1), 75 (15.9). Anal. Calcd for C9H9N3O3S (239.25): C, 45.18; H, 3.79; N, 17.56; S, 13.40. Found: C, 45.11; H, 3.70; 65, N, 17.42; S, 13.30%.

3.2.2. N-[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-3-aryl-2-cyanoacrylamide (5ac)

General Procedure: To a solution of cyanoacetanilide 3 (0.239 g, 1 mmol) and the appropriate aromatic aldhyeds (1 mmol) in dioxane (20 mL), was added few drops of piperidine and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 6 h. The solid product so formed was filtered off, washed with EtOH and then recrystallized from proper solvent to give 5ac.

3.2.3. 2-Cyano-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)prop-2-enamide (5a)

Yield (45%), mp 322 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3362, 3316, 3262 (NH, NH2), 2220 (C≡N), 1680 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.29 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.63 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.80 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.81–7.83 (m, 5H, ArH), 8.32 (s, 1H, olefinicH), 10.70 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH). MS m/z (%): 327 (M+, 18.2), 128 (40.4), 104 (10.7), 156 (100), 77 (23.9); Anal. Calcd for C16H13N3O3S (327.35): C, 58.70; H, 4.00; N, 12.84; S, 9.80. Found: C, 58.65; H, 3.88; N, 12.72; S, 9.77%.

3.2.4. 2-Cyano-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)prop-2-enamide (5b)

Yield (90%), mp 292 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3312, 3266, 3106 (NH, NH2), 2218 (C≡N), 1682 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.87 (s, 3H, OCH3), 7.19 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.27 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.82–7.83 (m, 4H, ArH), 8.04 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.24 (s, 1H, olefinicH), 10.56 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 357 (M+, 11.3), 199 (0.3), 187 (12.6), 186 (100), 158 (19.2), 77 (7.6); Anal. Calcd for C17H15N3O4S (357.38): C, 57.13; H, 4.23; N, 11.76; S, 8.97. Found: C, 57.00; H, 4.18; N, 11.55; S, 8.67%.

3.2.5. 2-Cyano-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)prop-2-enamide (5c)

Yield (63%), mp 286 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3388, 3329, 3262 (NH, NH2), 2218 (C≡N), 1688 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.37 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.76 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.91–8.07 (m, 4H, ArH), 8.10 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.39 (s, 1H, olefinicH), 10.78 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 361 (M+, 19.4), 191 (17.3), 190 (100), 162 (27.9), 127 (29.6), 123 (4.6), 111 (5.8), 99 (5.2), 75 (13.8); Anal. Calcd for C16H12ClN3O3S (361.80): C, 53.11; H, 3.34; Cl, 9.80; N, 11.61; S, 8.86. Found: C, 53.01; H, 3.29; Cl, 9.72; N, 11.51; S, 8.76%.

3.2.6. Synthesis of Pyridines 7ac

Method A: A mixture of 5 (10 mmol) and malononitrile (0.66 g, 10 mmol) in ethanol (30 mL) containing piperidine (0.5 mL) was heated under reflux for 3 h. After cooling, the precipitate was filtered off, washed with ethanol and then recrystallized from the proper solvent to give 7ac.

Method B: Equimolar amounts of 3 (10 mmol) and the appropriate 2-(arylidene)-malononitrile (namely 2-(benzylidene)-malononitrile, 2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-malononitrile, and 2-(4-chloro benzylidene)-malononitrile) (10 mmol) in ethanol (30 mL) was treated with piperidine (0.5 mL) and the reaction mixture was heated under reflux for 3 h. After cooling, the precipitate was filtered off, washed with ethanol and then recrystallized from the proper solvent to give 7ac.

Method C: A mixture of 3 (10 mmol), the appropriate aldehyde (namely benzaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, and p-chlorobenzaldehyde) (10 mmol), piperidine (10 mmol), and malononitrile (0.66 g, 10 mmol) in ethanol (30 mL) was heated under reflux for 3 h. After cooling, the precipitate was filtered off, washed with ethanol and then recrystallized from the proper solvent to give 7ac.

3.2.7. 4-(6-Amino-3,5-dicyano-2-oxo-4-phenylpyridin-1(2H)-yl)benzenesulfonamide (7a)

Yield (54%), mp 316 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3458, 3332, 3212 (NH, NH2), 2216 (C≡N), 1672 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.50 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.51–7.58 (m, 7H, ArH, NH2), 7.60 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.01 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz); MS m/z (%): 392 (M+ + 1, 10.7), 391 (M+, 7.8), 237 (7.8), 155 (9.2), 129 (8.7), 81 (46.5), 69 (100). Anal. Calcd for C19H13N5O3S (391.40): C, 58.30; H, 3.35; N, 17.89; S, 8.19. Found: C, 58.20; H, 3.34; N, 17.86; S, 8.15%.

3.2.8. 4-[6-Amino-3,5-dicyano-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-oxopyridin-1(2H)-yl]benzenesulfonamide (7b)

Yield (56%), mp 350 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3311, 3208, 3078 (NH, NH2), 2214 (C≡N), 1659 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.88 (s, 3H, OCH3), 7.12 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.50–7.52 (m, 6H, ArH, NH2), 7.62 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.00 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz); 13C-NMR: δ 55.3, 66.3, 75.4, 87.8, 114.0, 116.5, 120.1, 126.5, 127.7, 129.7, 132.7, 136.8, 145.3, 156.9, 159.5, 161.1; MS m/z (%): 422 (M+ + 1, 15.1), 421 (M+, 3.9), 336 (11.2), 265 (12.9), 229 (15.1), 195 (13.6), 185 (34.8), 157 (22.6), 82 (34.4), 55.1 (100). Anal. Calcd for C20H15N5O4S (421.43): C, 57.00; H, 3.59; N, 16.62; S, 7.61. Found: C, 56.98; H, 3.53; N, 16.55; S, 7.58%.

3.2.9. 4-[6-Amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dicyano-2-oxopyridin-1(2H)-yl]benzenesulfonamide (7c)

Yield (60%), mp > 300 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3348, 3208, 3097 (NH, NH2), 2219 (C≡N), 1661 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.51 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.56–7.59 (m, 4H, ArH), 7.69 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.01 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.10 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2); MS m/z (%): 427 (M+ + 2, 46.3), 426 (M+ + 1, 46.0), 425 (M+, 100), 397 (38.0), 313 (22.4), 269 (18.4), 156 (25.8), 132 (28.2), 111 (27.3), 106 (22.4), 91 (41.4), 80 (29.1), 77 (55.2). Anal. Calcd for C19H12ClN5O3S (425.84): C, 53.59; H, 2.84; Cl, 8.33; N, 16.45; S, 7.53. Found: C, 53.46; H, 2.80; Cl, 8.30; N, 16.42; S, 7.50%.

3.2.10. 4-(3-Cyano-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxopyridin-1(2H)-yl)benzenesulfonamide (10)

To a mixture of cyanoacetanilide 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) and acetylacetone (0.50 g, 1mmol) in dioxane (20 mL), triethylamine (0.5 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 8 h. On cooling, the separated solid was filtered, washed with ethanol and crystallized from DMF to afford the corresponding 4-(3-cyano-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxopyridin-1(2H)-yl)benzenesulfonamide (10). Yield (64%), mp > 300 °C (from DMF); IR (KBr) νmax: 3314, 3174, 3083 (NH, NH2), 2223 (C≡N), 1648 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1.98 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.40 (s, 3H, CH3), 6.49 (s, 1H, pyridineH), 7.52–7.57 (m, 4H, ArH, NH2), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH); MS m/z (%): 303 (M+, 51.9), 302 (100), 274 (10.6), 223 (21.5), 171 (0.9), 156 (2.8), 78 (23.6), 50 (20.6). Anal. Calcd for C14H13N3O3S (303.33): C, 55.43; H, 4.32; N, 13.85; S, 10.57. Found: C, 55.33; H, 4.28; N, 13.78; S, 10.52%.

3.2.11. 2-Imino-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (11)

A mixture of equimolar amounts of 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) and salicyaldehyde (0.61 g, 5 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (25 mL) containing a catalytic amount of piperidine was heated under reflux for 2 h. The solid product formed was collected by filtration and recrystallized from dioxane/ethanol (3:1) to give 11. Yield (90%), mp 294 °C (from dioxane/ethanol); IR (KBr) νmax: 3318, 3244 (NH, NH2), 1680 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.25 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.32 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 7.58–7.63 (m, 4H, ArH), 7.83 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 8.58 (s, 1H, CH), 9.29 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 13.11 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 344 (M+ + 1, 4.8), 343 (M+, 13.5), 172 (86.5), 156 (62.9), 143 (99.1), 65 (100). Anal. Calcd for C16H13N3O4S (343.35): C, 55.97; H, 3.82; N, 12.24; S, 9.34. Found: C, 55.90; H, 3.80; N, 12.20; S, 9.31%.

3.2.12. 2-Oxo-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (12)

Method A: To a solution of 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) in acetic acid (30 mL) containing 0.5 g of fused sodium acetate, salicyaldehyde (0.61 g, 5 mmol) was added. The mixture was heated under reflux for 2 h. After cooling, the formed product was collected by filtration and recrystallized from DMF to give 12.

Method B: The iminochromene derivatives 11 (0.86 g, 2.5 mmol) was dissolved in boiling dioxane (40 mL) and treated with 5 mL HCl. The reaction mixture was heated under reflux for 2 h. Left to cool, the obtained product was filtered off, washed with cold water, and air-dried. Yield (86%), mp > 300 °C (from DMF); IR (KBr) νmax: 3362, 3258, 3108 (NH, NH2), 1698 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.30 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.57 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 7.79–7.89 (m, 4H, ArH), 8.03 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 8.92 (s, 1H, CH), 10.88 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); 13C-NMR: δ 114.9, 118.7, 119.8, 124.3, 126.9, 130.2, 134.6, 139.1, 141.2, 142.1, 153.5, 155.4, 160.2, 161.2; MS m/z (%): 345 (M+ + 1, 3.6), 344 (M+, 10.1), 224 (2.8), 173 (100), 118 (5.8), 101 (47.3), 90 (14.6), 80 (14.2), 76 (6.5), 64 (47.0). Anal. Calcd for C16H12N2O5S (344.34): C, 55.81; H, 3.51; N, 8.14; S, 9.31. Found: C, 55.76; H, 3.45; N, 8.10; S, 9.29%.

3.2.13. Coupling of N-[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3) with the Appropriate Diazonium Salt of Aromatic Amines

General procedure: To a cold solution of cyanoacetanilide 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) in pyridine (20 mL), was added the appropriate diazonium salt of aromatic amine (4-methylaniline or 4-methoxyaniline or aniline or 4-chloroaniline or methyl 2-aminobenzoate) (5 mmol) [prepared according to literature procedures] [32]. The addition was carried out portion wise with stirring at 0–5 °C over a period of 30 min. After complete addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for a further 4 h then kept in an ice chest for 12 h and finally diluted with water. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with water, dried and finally recrystallized from the proper solvent to afford the corresponding coupling products 13ae.

3.2.14. 2-Cyano-2-[2-(4-methylphenyl)hydrazinylidene]-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)ethanamide (13a)

Yield (94%), mp 288 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3325, 3226, 3186 (NH, NH2), 2214 (C≡N),1664 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.30 (s, 3H, CH3), 7.20 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.22–7.64 (m, 4H, ArH), 7.81 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 7.92 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 10.13 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 11.93 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 358 (M+ + 1, 8.7), 357 (M+, 45.0), 198 (6.4), 186 (23.8), 172 (87.8), 134 (10.9), 119 (19.9), 106 (47.9), 91 (100), 77 (52.1), 65 (38.3). Anal. Calcd for C16H15N5O3S (357.38): C, 53.77; H, 4.23; N, 19.60; S, 8.97. Found: C, 53.71; H, 4.20; N, 19.55; S, 8.87%.

3.2.15. 2-Cyano-2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)hydrazinylidene]-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)ethanamide (13b)

Yield (95%), mp 274 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3336, 3227 (NH, NH2), 2212 (C≡N), 1662 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.77 (s, 3H, OCH3), 7.00 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 7.25 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.69 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 7.81 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz, ArH), 7.92 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz, ArH), 10.10 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 11.95 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 374 (M+ + 1, 8.7), 373 (M+, 24.3), 270 (5.8), 175 (21.4), 172 (39.8 ), 129 ( 22.3), 122 (100), 107 (38.8), 92 (38.8), 77 (47.6). Anal. Calcd for C16H15N5O4S (373.38): C, 51.47; H, 4.05; N, 18.76; S, 8.59. Found: C, 51.36; H, 4.00; N, 18.69; S, 8.52%.

3.2.16. 2-Cyano-2-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)ethanamide (13c)

Yield (92%), mp > 300 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3367, 3269, 3240 (NH, NH2), 2218 (C≡N), 1680 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.26 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.38–7.79 (m, 5H, ArH), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 7.93 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz, ArH), 10.17 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 11.98 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 343 (M+, 36.8), 206 (21.1), 198 (18.4), 172 (68.4), 145 (50.0), 118 (31.6), 108 (36.8), 91 (84.2), 80 (50.0), 77 (76.3), 60 (100). Anal. Calcd for C15H13N5O3S (343.36): C, 52.47; H, 3.82; N, 20.40; S, 9.34. Found: C, C, 52.45; H, 3.78; N, 20.38; S, 9.30%.

3.2.17. 2-[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)hydrazinylidene]-2-cyano-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)ethanamide (13d)

Yield (95%), mp > 300 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3360, 3232, 3190 (NH, NH2), 2216 (C≡N), 1668 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 7.26 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.47 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.74–7.82 (m, 4H, ArH), 7.92 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 10.22 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 12.04 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 379 (M+ + 2, 17.9), 378 (M+ + 1, 12.5), 377 (M+, 39.3), 296 (26.8), 238 (12.5 ), 206 (41.1), 182 (32.1), 172 (96.4), 156 (51.8), 125 (57.1), 111 (53.6), 106 (30.4), 90 (69.6), 77 (21.4), 64 (100). Anal. Calcd for C15H12ClN5O3S (377.80): C, 47.69; H, 3.20; Cl, 9.38; N, 18.54; S, 8.49. Found: C, 47.61; H, 3.15; Cl, 9.27; N, 18.49; S, 8.43%.

3.2.18. Methyl 4-[2-(1-Cyano-2-oxo-2-{(4-sulfamoylphenyl)amino}ethylidene)hydrazinyl]benzoate (13e)

Yield (95%), mp > 300 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3340, 3231, 3148 (NH, NH2) 2211 (C≡N), 1687 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.94 (s, 3H, CH3), 7.24 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.31–7.94 (m, 4H, ArH), 8.03 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.32 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 10.43 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 12.49 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 402 (M+ + 1, 3.0), 401 (M+, 12.8), 170 (11.7), 133 (100), 90 (34.1), 92 (20.2), 77 (21.2), 65 (12.7). Anal. Calcd for C17H15N5O5S (401.39): C, 50.87; H, 3.77; N, 17.45; S, 7.99. Found: C, 50.81; H, 3.65; N, 17.40; S, 7.92%.

3.2.19. Synthesis of Aminopyrazoles 14a,b

To a solution of the compound 13a,b (5 mmol) in dioxane (20 mL), hydrazine hydrate (80%, 1.0 mL, 5 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 6 h and allowed to cool. The solid product obtained was filtered, washed with EtOH and dried. Recrystallization from dioxane afforded 14a,b.

3.2.20. 4-({5-Amino-4-[(4-methylphenyl)diazenyl]-1H-pyrazol-3-yl}amino)benzenesulfonamide (14a)

Yield (40%), mp 240 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3459, 3367, 3345, 3208 (NH, NH2), 2920, 2859 (aliphaticCH) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.29 (s, 3H, CH3), 5.18 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.23 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.42 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.49 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.75–7.90 (m, 4H, ArH), 9.86 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 13.65 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); 13C-NMR: δ 20.5, 99.4, 117.0, 119.5, 126.4, 129.5, 132.9, 137.9, 141.8, 145.1, 151.5, 165.7; MS m/z (%): 372 (M+ + 1, 14.6), 356 (20.8), 217 ( 31.3 ), 201 (16.7), 156 ( 31.3 ), 126 ( 22.9), 123 (58.3), 107 (50.0), 106 (100), 90 (50.0), 77 (54.2). Anal. Calcd for C16H17N7O2S (371.41): C, 51.74; H, 4.61; N, 26.40; S, 8.63. Found: C, 51.70; H, 4.58; N, 26.20; S, 8.59%.

3.2.21. 4-({5-Amino-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]-1H-pyrazol-3-yl}amino)benzenesulfonamide (14b)

Yield (72%), mp 200 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3436, 3351, 3259 (NH, NH2), 1658 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.77 (s, 3H, OCH3), 5.03 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.00 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.21 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.49 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.77–7.81 (m, 4H, ArH), 9.70 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 13.20 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 389 (M+ + 2, 35.4), 388 (M+ + 1, 40.2), 387 (M+, 38.4), 250 (31.7 ), 216 (40.2), 196 (53.0 ), 171 (45.1), 155 (31.7), 122 (33.5), 108 (34.8), 95 (40.2), 69 (100). Anal. Calcd for C16H17N7O3S (387.41): C, 49.60; H, 4.42; N, 25.31; S, 8.28. Found: C, 49.58; H, 4.40; N, 25.30; S, 8.20%.

3.2.22. 4-Amino-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxamide (15)

To a solution of cyanoacetamide 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) in DMF containing triethylamine (1 mL), elemental sulfur (0.16 g, 5 mmol) and phenyl isothiocyanate (0.68 mL, 5 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was heated at 60 °C for 2 h with continous stirring and then poured into a beaker containing an ice-water mixture with few drops of HCl. The solid product so formed was filtered off, washed with EtOH and dried. Recrystallization from dioxane afforded compound 15. Yield (60%), mp > 300 °C (from DMF); IR (KBr) νmax: 3397, 3210 (NH, NH2), 1671 (C=O), 1335, 1217 (C=S) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.42 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.19 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.50 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.55–7.88 (m, 5H, ArH), 7.96 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 8.45 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%) 406 (M+, 0.9), 402 (5.7), 172 (14.3), 156 (8.6), 129 (11.4), 114 (11.4), 109 (17.1), 82 (32.9), 76 (44.3), 63 (100). Anal. Calcd for C16H14N4O3S3 (406.50): C, 47.27; H, 3.47; N, 13.78; S, 23.66. Found: C, 47.21; H, 3.44; N, 13.71; S, 23.59%.

3.2.23. 3,5-Diamino-4-cyano-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (16)

To a solution of compound 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) in dioxane (25 mL) containing triethylamine (1.00 mL), malononitrile (0.33 g, 5 mmol) was added followed by the addition of an equimolar amount of elemental sulfur (0.16 g, 5 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated under reflux for 5 h, then cooled and neutralized by pouring onto ice/water mixture containing few drops of hydrochloric acid. The solid product formed was collected by filtration and crystallized from dioxane. Yield (86%), mp > 300 °C (from dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3743, 3316 (NH, NH2), 2209 (C≡N), 1635 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 3.45 (s, 4H, D2O-exchangeable 2NH2), 7.26 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.50–7.92 (m, 4H, ArH), 11.36 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 338 (M+ + 1, 44.9), 337 (M+, 47.2), 295 (47.2), 278 (45.7), 181 (49.6), 156 (53.5), 150 (51.9), 122 (51.2), 105 (64.6), 80 (48.8), 58 (100.0). Anal. Calcd for C12H11N5O3S (337.37): C, 42.72; H, 3.29; N, 20.76; S, 19.01. Found: C, 42.68; H, 3.21; N, 20.66; S, 18.96%.

3.2.24. Synthesis of 18, 19 and 20

Compound 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of potassium hydroxide (0.26 g, 5 mmol) in DMF (20 mL). After stirring for 30 min, phenyl isothiocyanate (0.68 g, 5 mmol) was added to the resulting mixture. Stirring was continued for 6 h, and then chloroacetone or 3-(2-bromoacetyl)- 2H-chromen-2-one or methyl iodide, (5 mmol) was added portion wise over a period of 30 min. After the addition was complete, the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 12 h, during which the reactant dissolved and a yellow product precipitated. The solid product was filtered off, washed with EtOH and dried. Recrystallization from proper solvent afforded 18, 19 and 20.

3.2.25. N-[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(4-methyl-3-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)acet- amide (18)

Yield (95%), mp 272 °C (from Dioxane) (lit. mp 260–262 °C) [31]; IR (KBr) νmax: 3294, 3196, 3107 (NH, NH2), 2178 (C≡N), 1605 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1.86 (s, 3H, CH3), 6.98 (s, 1H, thiazole-CH), 7.17 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.49 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.57 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.60–7.70 (m, 5H, ArH), 9.02 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 14.2, 66.3, 106.9, 115.9, 119.3, 126.2, 128.9, 129.6, 130.6, 136.6, 137.5, 138.3, 142.4, 165.1, 166.5; MS m/z (%): 412 (M+, 10.1), 332 (2.1), 241 (100), 214 (35.3), 198 (19.2), 172 (6.9), 118 (19.9), 90 (38.3), 77 (43.2). Anal. Calcd for C19H16N4O3S2 (412.48): C, 55.32; H, 3.91; N, 13.58; S, 15.55. Found: C, 55.30; H, 3.88; N, 13.51; S, 15.50%.

3.2.26. 2-Cyano-2-[4-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl]-3-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-N-(4-sulfamoyl- phenyl)ethanamide (19)

Yield (55%), mp 280 °C (from Dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3367, 3310 and 3235 (NH, NH2), 3060 (aromatic CH), 1713 (C=O), 1635 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 1.01 (s, 3H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH3), 4.04 (q, 2H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH2), 7.08–7.13 (m, 5H, ArH), 7.21 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.39–7.44 (m, 7H, ArH and NH2), 7.63 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 9.54 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 9.73 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); 13C-NMR: δ 70.9, 95.3, 115.4, 115.8, 118.0, 119.6, 120.9, 124.8, 125.8, 126.3, 128.4, 128.8, 129.3, 129.5, 132.7, 137.0, 138.0, 142.1, 143.0, 153.2, 158.4, 164.7, 171.3; MS m/z (%): 521 (M+, 26.3), 322 (15.8), 218 (100.0), 199 (15.8), 77 (86.0). Anal. Calcd for C27H18N4O5S2 (542.58): C, 59.77; H, 3.34; N, 10.33; S, 11.82. Found: C, 59.75; H, 3.30; N, 10.31; S, 11.79%.

3.2.27. 2-Cyano-3-(methylsulfanyl)-3-(phenylamino)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)prop-2-enamide (20)

Yield (95%), mp 204 °C (from EtOH) (lit. mp 220–222 °C) [33]; IR (KBr) νmax: 3410, 3339, 3243, 3119 (NH, NH2), 2194 (C≡N), 1628 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.49 (s, 3H, CH3), 7.18 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.31–7.41 (m, 5H, ArH), 7.67 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7.79 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 9.65 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH), 9.91 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); MS m/z (%): 389 (M+ + 1, 63.0), 388 (M+, 10.9), 341 (58.7), 294 (100), 249 (56.5), 223 (67.4), 208 (68.5), 197 (58.7), 185 (25.0), 182 (59.8), 140 (76.1), 92 (17.4). Anal. Calcd for C17H16N4O3S2 (388.46): C, 52.56; H, 4.15; N, 14.42; S, 16.51. Found: C, 52.50; H, 4.12; N, 14.45; S, 16.48%.

3.2.28. 2-Cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (22)

To a stirred suspension of finely powdered potassium hydroxide (0.26 g, 5 mmole) in dry DMF (20 mL) cyanoacetamide 3 (1.20 g, 5 mmole) was added, the resulted mixture was cooled at 10 °C in an ice bath, then carbon disulfide (5 mmol) was added slowly over the course of 10 min. After addition was complete, stirring of the reaction mixture was continued for additional 2 h. Then dibromopropane (5 mmol) was added to the mixture while cooling (~15 °C) and stirring for 1 h. The mixture was then poured into crushed ice and the resulting precipitate was filtrated off, dried and crystallized from the proper solvent to give 22. Yield (95%), mp 278 °C (from Dioxane); IR (KBr) νmax: 3314, 3241, 3107 (NH, NH2), 2209 (C≡N), 1653 (C=O) cm−1; 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 2.18 (m, 2H, J = 6.80 Hz, CH2), 3.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz, CH2), 3.19 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz, CH2), 7.25 (s, 2H, D2O-exchangeable NH2), 7.75 (m, 4H, ArH), 10.29 (s, 1H, D2O-exchangeable NH); 13C-NMR: δ 22.5, 29.2, 98.5, 115.6, 119.8, 126.5, 139.0, 141.3, 159.8, 177.3; MS m/z (%): 356 (M+ + 1, 2.9), 355 (M+, 14.8), 237 (0.2), 183 (100), 129 (2.3), 118 (1.2), 110 (27.6), 80 (18.1). Anal. Calcd for C13H13N3O3S3 (355.45): C, 43.93; H, 3.69; N, 11.82; S, 27.06. Found: C, 43.85; H, 3.57; N, 11.78; S, 27.00%.

3.3. Antimicrobial Evaluation

The antibacterial and antifungal activity assays were carried out in the Medical Mycology Laboratory of the Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology of Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt using the diffusion plate method [2628] as follows: a bottomless cylinder containing a measured quantity (1 mL, 5 mg/mL) of the sample is placed on a plate (9 cm diameter) containing a solid bacterial medium (nutrient agar broth) or fungal medium, which has been heavily seeded with a spore suspension of the test organism. After incubation (24 h for bacteria and 5 days for fungi), the diameter of the clear zone of inhibition surrounding the sample is taken as measure of the inhibitory power of the sample against the particular test organism. The solvent used was DMSO and the concentration of the sample used is 100 μg/mL. The results of antimicrobial activity are summarized in Table 1.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, the reactivity of N-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3) was investigated as a versatile and readily accessible building block for the synthesis of new heterocycles incorporating a sulfamoyl moiety of biological and pharmaceutical importance.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University for their financial support to facilitate the publication of this study.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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  32. Butler, R.N. The diazotization of heterocyclic primary amines. Chem. Rev 1975, 75, 241–257.
  33. Ammar, Y.A.; Aly, M.M.; Al-Sehemi, A.G.; Salem, M.A.; El-Gaby, M.S.A. Cyanoacetanilides intermediates in heterocyclic synthesis. Part 5: Preparation of hitherto unknown 5-aminopyrazole and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives containing sulfamoyl moiety. J. Chin. Chem. Soc 2009, 56, 1064–1071.
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Scheme 1. Synthesis of cyanoacetamide 3.

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Scheme 1. Synthesis of cyanoacetamide 3.
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Scheme 2. Synthesis of arylidene 5ac and pyridones 7ac and 10.

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Scheme 2. Synthesis of arylidene 5ac and pyridones 7ac and 10.
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Scheme 3. Synthesis of 2-imino-2H-chromene 11 and 2-oxo-2H-chromene 12.

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Scheme 3. Synthesis of 2-imino-2H-chromene 11 and 2-oxo-2H-chromene 12.
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Scheme 4. Synthesis of hydrazones 13ae and aminopyrazole 14a,b.

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Scheme 4. Synthesis of hydrazones 13ae and aminopyrazole 14a,b.
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Scheme 5. Synthesis of aminothiazole 15 and diaminothiophene 16.

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Scheme 5. Synthesis of aminothiazole 15 and diaminothiophene 16.
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Scheme 6. Synthesis of thiazoles 18, 19 and acrylamide 20.

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Scheme 6. Synthesis of thiazoles 18, 19 and acrylamide 20.
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Scheme 7. Synthesis of 1,3-dithian-2-ylidene 22.

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Scheme 7. Synthesis of 1,3-dithian-2-ylidene 22.
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Table 1. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds (5a, 5c, 7b, 7c, 10, 11, 13b, 14a, 15, 16, 18, 19 and 22).

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Table 1. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds (5a, 5c, 7b, 7c, 10, 11, 13b, 14a, 15, 16, 18, 19 and 22).
Comp.Inhibition zone diameter (cm)

Gram (+)Gram (−)Fungi

Standard values(SP)(BS)(PA)(EC)(AF)(SR)(GC)(CA)

23.8 ± 0.232.4 ± 0.317.3 ± 0.119.9 ± 0.323.7 ± 0.219.7 ± 0.228.7 ± 0.225.4 ± 0.1
5a18.9 ± 0.4421.7 ± 0.2511.6 ± 0.1915.4 ± 0.3920.2 ± 0.5516.3 ± 0.2522.4 ± 0.5819.6 ± 0.33
5c16.3 ± 0.5518.3 ± 0.25NANA17.3 ± 0.4412.6 ± 0.2519.0 ± 0.5816.9 ± 0.25
7b16.9 ± 0.5818.2 ± 0.44NA11.9 ± 0.6315.7 ± 0.3313.8 ± 0.2518.3 ± 0.34NA
7c18.3 ± 0.2522.6 ± 0.4413.1 ± 0.3220.3 ± 0.0920.6 ± 0.5816.7 ± 0.3322.4 ± 0.3617.6 ± 0.58
1016.7 ± 0.3619.2 ± 0.27NA13.6 ± 0.3616.8 ± 0.3913.4 ± 0.5819.6 ± 0.1915.9 ± 0.44
11NANANANA15.7 ± 0.3611.2 ± 0.3317.3 ± 0.4413.3 ± 0.36
13b12.3 ± 0.5812.7 ± 0.37NA8.5 ± 0.3717.6 ± 0.5815.4 ± 0.2512.6 ± 0.38NA
14a17.5 ± 0.4419.8 ± 0.63NA18.9 ± 0.2515.3 ± 0.5513.4 ± 0.3511.5 ± 0.58NA
1515.0 ± 0.4317.4 ± 0.5312.3 ± 0.2517.8 ± 0.0311.3 ± 0.3412.1 ± 0.2515.3 ± 0.38NA
16NANANANANANANANA
1816.9 ± 0.5818.2 ± 0.44NA11.9 ± 0.6316.2 ± 0.3615.0 ± 0.4417.6 ± 0.58NA
1912.9 ± 0.6313.2 ± 0.58NA10.8 ± 0.4418.7 ± 0.3616.9 ± 0.2713.4 ± 0.65NA
2212.3 ± 0.5812.7 ± 0.37NA10.8 ± 0.4417.6 ± 0.5815.4 ± 0.2512.6 ± 0.38NA

Data are expressed in the form of mean ± SD. Mean zone of inhibition in mm ± standard deviation beyond well diameter; (6 mm) produced on a range of environmental and clinically pathogenic microorganism using (5 mg/mL) concentration of tested sample (100 μL was tested).

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