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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14439-14459; doi:10.3390/ijms140714439
Article

Upregulation of Phosphorylated HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Growth

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Received: 7 May 2013; in revised form: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
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Abstract: Cholesteatoma is a destructive and expanding growth of keratinizing squamous epithelium in the middle ear or petrous apex. The molecular and cellular processes of the pathogenesis of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma have not been fully understood. In this study, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the roles of specific proteins in the pathways regarding keratinocyte proliferation in cholesteatoma. The differential proteins were detected by comparing the two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) maps of the epithelial tissues of 12 attic cholesteatomas with those of retroauricular skins. There were 14 upregulated proteins in the epithelial tissues of cholesteatoma in comparison with retroauricular skin. The modulation of five crucial proteins, HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94, was further determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylation of HSP27 at Ser-82 was identified by mass spectroscopy. The results of this study suggested that phosphorylated HSP27 is the end expression of two potential signal-transduction pathways, and together with PRDX2, they are very likely involved in the proliferation of keratinocytes in cholesteatoma. Upregulations of GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in keratinocytes may be able to counter endoplasmic reticulum stress, to inhibit cell apoptosis, to prevent protein unfolding and to promote cholesteatoma growth.
Keywords: cholesteatoma; HSP27; PRDX2; GRP75; GRP78; GRP94 cholesteatoma; HSP27; PRDX2; GRP75; GRP78; GRP94
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, K.Y.; Yeh, T.S.; Huang, H.H.; Hung, K.F.; Chai, C.Y.; Chen, W.T.; Tsai, S.M.; Chang, N.C.; Chien, C.Y.; Wang, H.M.; Wu, Y.J. Upregulation of Phosphorylated HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Growth. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14439-14459.

AMA Style

Ho KY, Yeh TS, Huang HH, Hung KF, Chai CY, Chen WT, Tsai SM, Chang NC, Chien CY, Wang HM, Wu YJ. Upregulation of Phosphorylated HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Growth. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14439-14459.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ho, Kuen Y.; Yeh, Tai S.; Huang, Han H.; Hung, Kuo F.; Chai, Chee Y.; Chen, Wan T.; Tsai, Shih M.; Chang, Ning C.; Chien, Chen Y.; Wang, Hsun M.; Wu, Yu J. 2013. "Upregulation of Phosphorylated HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Growth." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14439-14459.



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