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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 11113-11124; doi:10.3390/ijms140611113
Article

The Interaction of CuS and Halothiobacillus HT1 Biofilm in Microscale Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Techniques

1,2
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 3
, 3
, 4
 and 1,*
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China 2 Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Xiamen 361021, China 3 Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Beijing 100049, China 4 Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai 201800, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria)
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Abstract

In order to investigate the microbe-mineral interaction in the micro scale, spatial distribution and speciation of Cu and S in Halothiobacillus HT1 biofilm formed on a CuS surface was examined using synchrotron-based X-ray techniques. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) results indicated that Halothiobacillus HT1 biofilm formation gave rise to distinct chemical and redox gradients, leading to diverse niches in the biofilm. Live cells were distributed at the air-biofilm and membrane-biofilm interface. CuS was oxidized by Halothiobacillus HT1 biofilm, and copper penetrated into the biofilm. Sulfide was oxidized to cysteine (77.3%), sulfite (3.8%) and sulfonate (18.9%). Cu-cysteine-like species were involved in the copper homeostasis. These results significantly improve our understanding of the interfacial properties of the biofilm-mineral interface.
Keywords: Halothiobacillus HT1 biofilm; distribution; speciation; copper; sulfur Halothiobacillus HT1 biofilm; distribution; speciation; copper; sulfur
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lin, H.; Chen, G.; Zhu, S.; Chen, Y.; Chen, D.; Xu, W.; Yu, X.; Shi, J. The Interaction of CuS and Halothiobacillus HT1 Biofilm in Microscale Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Techniques. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11113-11124.

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