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Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism
Department of Biology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil
Nucleus of Research in Environmental Sciences, Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE 52050-590, Brazil
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil
Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI 64049-550, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2013; in revised form: 12 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109) growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%–81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium during its growth. The C. elegans mycelia showed a removal efficiency of 280 mg/g at a cadmium concentration of 22.10 mg/L, and the removal velocity of cadmium was 0.107 mg/h. Additionally, it was observed that cadmium induced vacuolization, the presence of electron dense deposits in vacuoles, cytoplasm and cell membranes, as well as the distinct behavior of polyphosphate fractions. The results obtained with C. elegans suggest that precipitation, vacuolization and polyphosphate fractions were associated to cadmium tolerance, and this species demonstrated a higher potential for bioremediation of heavy metals.
Keywords: heavy metal; cadmium; polyphosphate; tolerance; Cunninghamella elegans
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de Lima, M.A.B.; Franco, L.O.; de Souza, P.M.; do Nascimento, A.E.; da Silva, C.A.A.; Maia, R.C.C.; Rolim, H.M.L.; Takaki, G.M.C. Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 7180-7192.
de Lima MAB, Franco LO, de Souza PM, do Nascimento AE, da Silva CAA, Maia RCC, Rolim HML, Takaki GMC. Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):7180-7192.
de Lima, Marcos A.B.; Franco, Luciana O.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; do Nascimento, Aline E.; da Silva, Carlos A.A.; Maia, Rita C.C.; Rolim, Hercília M.L.; Takaki, Galba M.C. 2013. "Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 7180-7192.