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Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure
School of Public Health, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2012; in revised form: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Abstract: Translation elongation factor-1d (TEF-1δ) has been identified as a novel cadmium-responsive proto-oncogene. However, it is still unclear whether TEF-1δ could be a potential biomarker of cadmium exposure. Rats were treated with CdCl2 at different concentrations (high dose 1.225, mid-dose 0.612 and low dose 0.306 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 14 weeks, and the cadmium levels, weight coefficients, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCR), 24-h urine protein (24hPro), urinary creatinine (Cr) and pathological features were determined. The TEF-1δ expression in white blood cells and multiple organs were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were also confirmed with fluorescence quantitative PCR. A cadmium dose-dependent increase (p < 0.05) of cadmium levels in blood, urine, liver, kidney, heart and lung, and the weight coefficients was observed. The liver and renal function indictors including AST, ALT, SCR, BUN and 24hPro, were elevated in a cadmium dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Significant pathological changes in liver, kidney, heart and lung were indicated. The TEF-1δ expression was up-regulated in both blood and organs (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression level of blood TEF-1δ was positively correlated to TEF-1δ expression level, cadmium level and toxicity in the organs (p < 0.01). This study indicates that blood TEF-1δ is a novel valuable biomarker for cadmium exposure and its organ toxicity.
Keywords: cadmium; translation elongation factor-1δ; biomarker; toxicity
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Lu, Q.; Lei, Y.-X.; He, C.-C.; Lei, Z.-N. Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 5182-5197.
Lu Q, Lei Y-X, He C-C, Lei Z-N. Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):5182-5197.
Lu, Qian; Lei, Yi-Xiong; He, Chao-Cai; Lei, Zi-Ning. 2013. "Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 5182-5197.