Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8324-8337; doi:10.3390/ijms13078324
Article

Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan

1email, 1,* email, 2email, 3email and 4,* email
Received: 20 April 2012; in revised form: 3 June 2012 / Accepted: 24 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: A total of 125 (ready to eat) processed food samples (70 intended for infant and 55 for adult intake) belonging to 20 different food categories were analyzed for aflatoxins contamination using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) with fluorescent detection. A solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water was used for the extraction followed by immunoaffinity clean-up to enhance sensitivity of the method. The limit of detection (LOD) (0.01–0.02 ng·g−1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.02 ng·g−1) was established for aflatoxins based on signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively. Of the processed food samples tested, 38% were contaminated with four types of aflatoxins, i.e., AFB1 (0.02–1.24 μg·kg−1), AFB2 (0.02–0.37 μg·kg−1), AFG1 (0.25–2.7 μg·kg−1) and AFG2 (0.21–1.3 μg·kg−1). In addition, the results showed that 21% of the processed foods intended for infants contained AFB1 levels higher than the European Union permissible limits (0.1 μg·kg−1), while all of those intended for adult consumption had aflatoxin contamination levels within the permitted limits.
Keywords: aflatoxins contamination; cereals based products; immunoaffinity clean-up; effective recovery; HPLC
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [411 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 04:20 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Mushtaq, M.; Sultana, B.; Anwar, F.; Khan, M.Z.; Ashrafuzzaman, M. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8324-8337.

AMA Style

Mushtaq M, Sultana B, Anwar F, Khan MZ, Ashrafuzzaman M. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):8324-8337.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Ashrafuzzaman, Muhammad. 2012. "Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 8324-8337.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert