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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(5), 5659-5673; doi:10.3390/ijms13055659
Article

Comparison of Standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T Optimized Protocols in Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate. A Serial MRI Pilot Study

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Received: 22 March 2012; in revised form: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 3 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)
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Abstract: This study explored the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA, 20 mg) on lesion activity using the 1.5 T standard MRI protocol (single dose gadolinium [Gd] and 5-min delay) or optimized 3 T protocol (triple dose of Gd, 20-min delay and application of an off-resonance saturated magnetization transfer pulse). A 15-month, phase IV, open-label, single-blinded, prospective, observational study included 12 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who underwent serial MRI scans (Days −45, −20, 0; the minus ign indicates the number of days before GA treatment; and on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 270 and 360 during GA treatment) on 1.5 T and 3 T protocols. Cumulative number and volume of Gd enhancing (Gd-E) and T2 lesions were calculated. At Days −45 and 0, there were higher number (p < 0.01) and volume (p < 0.05) of Gd-E lesions on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. However, at 180 and 360 days of the study, no significant differences in total and cumulative number of new Gd-E and T 2 lesions were found between the two protocols. Compared to pre-treatment period, at Days 180 and 360 a significantly greater decrease in the cumulative number of Gd-E lesions (p = 0.03 and 0.021, respectively) was found using the 3 T vs. the 1.5 T protocol (p = NS for both time points). This MRI mechanistic study suggests that GA may exert a greater effect on decreasing lesion activity as measured on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol.
Keywords: glatiramer acetate; gadolinium-enhancing lesions; magnetic resonance imaging; 1.5 T; 3 T; T2 lesions; pilot trial glatiramer acetate; gadolinium-enhancing lesions; magnetic resonance imaging; 1.5 T; 3 T; T2 lesions; pilot trial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zivadinov, R.; Hojnacki, D.; Hussein, S.; Bergsland, N.; Carl, E.; Durfee, J.; Dwyer, M.G.; Kennedy, C.; Weinstock-Guttman, B. Comparison of Standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T Optimized Protocols in Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate. A Serial MRI Pilot Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5659-5673.

AMA Style

Zivadinov R, Hojnacki D, Hussein S, Bergsland N, Carl E, Durfee J, Dwyer MG, Kennedy C, Weinstock-Guttman B. Comparison of Standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T Optimized Protocols in Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate. A Serial MRI Pilot Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(5):5659-5673.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zivadinov, Robert; Hojnacki, David; Hussein, Sara; Bergsland, Niels; Carl, Ellen; Durfee, Jacqueline; Dwyer, Michael G.; Kennedy, Cheryl; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca. 2012. "Comparison of Standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T Optimized Protocols in Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate. A Serial MRI Pilot Study." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 5: 5659-5673.


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