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Glutathione Is a Key Player in Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress Defenses
Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
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Received: 21 December 2011; in revised form: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Abstract: Since the industrial revolution, the production, and consequently the emission of metals, has increased exponentially, overwhelming the natural cycles of metals in many ecosystems. Metals display a diverse array of physico-chemical properties such as essential versus non-essential and redox-active versus non-redox-active. In general, all metals can lead to toxicity and oxidative stress when taken up in excessive amounts, imposing a serious threat to the environment and human health. In order to cope with different kinds of metals, plants possess defense strategies in which glutathione (GSH; γ-glu-cys-gly) plays a central role as chelating agent, antioxidant and signaling component. Therefore, this review highlights the role of GSH in: (1) metal homeostasis; (2) antioxidative defense; and (3) signal transduction under metal stress. The diverse functions of GSH originate from the sulfhydryl group in cysteine, enabling GSH to chelate metals and participate in redox cycling.
Keywords: metals; cellular redox state; glutathione; chelation
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Jozefczak, M.; Remans, T.; Vangronsveld, J.; Cuypers, A. Glutathione Is a Key Player in Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress Defenses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3145-3175.
Jozefczak M, Remans T, Vangronsveld J, Cuypers A. Glutathione Is a Key Player in Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress Defenses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3145-3175.
Jozefczak, Marijke; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann. 2012. "Glutathione Is a Key Player in Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress Defenses." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3145-3175.