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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(2), 15; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed2020015

Antenatal Practices Ineffective at Prevention of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria during Pregnancy in a Sub-Saharan Africa Region, Nigeria

Parasitology and Public Health Unit, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, P.O. Box 3146, Nigeria
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Academic Editor: John Frean
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract

Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is a major public health concern constituting a serious risk to the pregnant woman, her foetus, and newborn. Management of cases and prevention rely partly on effective and efficient antenatal services. This study examined the effectiveness of antenatal service provision in a major district hospital in sub-Saharan Africa at preventing PAM. A cross-sectional hospital based study design aided by questionnaire was used. Malaria diagnosis was by microscopy. Overall prevalence of PAM was 50.7% (38/75). Mean Plasmodium falciparum density was (112.89 ± standard error of mean, 22.90) × 103/µL red blood cell (RBC). P. falciparum prevalence was not significantly dependent on gravidity, parity, trimester, age, and BMI status of the women (p > 0.05). Difference in P. falciparum density per µL RBC in primigravidae (268.13 ± 58.23) × 103 vs. secundi- (92.14 ± 4.72) × 103 vs. multigravidae (65.22 ± 20.17) × 103; and in nulliparous (225.00 ± 48.25) × 103 vs. primiparous (26.25 ± 8.26) × 103 vs. multiparous (67.50 ± 20.97) × 103 was significant (p < 0.05). Majority of attendees were at 3rd trimester at time of first antenatal visit. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in the first-time (48.6%), and multiple-time (52.6%) antenatal attendees was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.119, p = 0.730). The higher prevalence of malaria among bed net owners (69.6% vs. 42.9%, χ2 = 2.575, p = 0.109, OR = 3.048 (95% CI 0.765–12.135)) and users (66.7% vs. 33.3%, χ2 = 2.517, p = 0.113, OR = 4.000 (95% CI 0.693–23.089)) at multiple antenatal visits vs. first timers was not significant. None of the pregnant women examined used malaria preventive chemotherapy. Antenatal services at the hospital were not effective at preventing PAM. Holistic reviews reflecting recommendations made here can be adopted for effective service delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy associated malaria; obstetrics; parasitaemia; antenatal visit; mosquito bed net; antenatal service; maternal mortality; infant mortality; neonate; tropical health pregnancy associated malaria; obstetrics; parasitaemia; antenatal visit; mosquito bed net; antenatal service; maternal mortality; infant mortality; neonate; tropical health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aguzie, I.O.N.; Ivoke, N.; Onyishi, G.C.; Okoye, I.C. Antenatal Practices Ineffective at Prevention of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria during Pregnancy in a Sub-Saharan Africa Region, Nigeria. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 15.

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