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Crystals 2014, 4(3), 273-295; doi:10.3390/cryst4030273
Review

Polarization Rotation and Monoclinic Distortion in Ferroelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–BaTiO3 Single Crystals under Electric Fields

1
,
1,* , 1
,
1
,
2
 and
2
1 Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan 2 Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2014 / Revised: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Crystals)
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Abstract

The features of the crystal structures and spontaneous polarization (Ps) under an electric field (E) have been reviewed for (1 − x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3xBaTiO3 (BNT–BT). In-situ measurements of high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) under electric fields show that single crystals with x = 0 (BNT) and 5% have a monoclinic distortion in space group Cc at 25 °C. The SR-XRD study combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrates that BNT–5%BT exhibits a rotation of Ps in the monoclinic ac plane by 2° under an E of 70 kV/cm along the <001> pseudo-cubic direction, which is much larger than BNT.
Keywords: ferroelectric crystals; bismuth sodium titanate; BNT; spontaneous polarization; X-ray diffraction; synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction; DFT; monoclinic; rhombohedral ferroelectric crystals; bismuth sodium titanate; BNT; spontaneous polarization; X-ray diffraction; synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction; DFT; monoclinic; rhombohedral
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ogino, M.; Noguchi, Y.; Kitanaka, Y.; Miyayama, M.; Moriyoshi, C.; Kuroiwa, Y. Polarization Rotation and Monoclinic Distortion in Ferroelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–BaTiO3 Single Crystals under Electric Fields. Crystals 2014, 4, 273-295.

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