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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(7), 596; doi:10.3390/rs8070596

Potential of ENVISAT Radar Altimetry for Water Level Monitoring in the Pantanal Wetland

Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM), Arcisstrasse 21, 80333 München, Germany
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Academic Editors: Javier Bustamante, Magaly Koch and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What can Remote Sensing Do for the Conservation of Wetlands?)
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Abstract

Wetlands are important ecosystems playing an essential role for continental water regulation and the hydrologic cycle. Moreover, they are sensitive to climate changes as well as anthropogenic influences, such as land-use or dams. However, the monitoring of these regions is challenging as they are normally located in remote areas without in situ measurement stations. Radar altimetry provides important measurements for monitoring and analyzing water level variations in wetlands and flooded areas. Using the example of the Pantanal region in South America, this study demonstrates the capability and limitations of ENVISAT radar altimeter for monitoring water levels in inundation areas. By applying an innovative processing method consisting of a rigorous data screening by means of radar echo classification as well as an optimized waveform retracking, water level time series with respect to a global reference and with a temporal resolution of about one month are derived. A comparison between altimetry-derived height variations and six in situ time series reveals accuracies of 30 to 50 cm RMS. The derived water level time series document seasonal height variations of up to 1.5 m amplitude with maximum water levels between January and June. Large scale geographical pattern of water heights are visible within the wetland. However, some regions of the Pantanal show water level variations less than a few decimeter, which is below the accuracies of the method. These areas cannot be reliably monitored by ENVISAT. View Full-Text
Keywords: satellite altimetry; wetlands; Pantanal; water level; ENVISAT; inundation satellite altimetry; wetlands; Pantanal; water level; ENVISAT; inundation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dettmering, D.; Schwatke, C.; Boergens, E.; Seitz, F. Potential of ENVISAT Radar Altimetry for Water Level Monitoring in the Pantanal Wetland. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 596.

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