Remote Sens. 2011, 3(5), 962-974; doi:10.3390/rs3050962
Article

A Multi-Sensor Approach to Examining the Distribution of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, NC, USA

1 Department of Geological Sciences, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA 2 Institute for Coastal Science and Policy, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA 3 Global Earth Observation and Data Analysis Center, Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan 4 National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Road, Science Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2011; in revised form: 1 May 2011 / Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Coastal Ecosystem)
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Abstract: For many coastal waters, total suspended matter (TSM) plays a major role in key biological, chemical and geological processes. Effective mapping and monitoring technologies for TSM are therefore needed to support research investigations and environmental assessment and management efforts. Although several investigators have demonstrated that TSM or suspended sediments can be successfully mapped using MODIS 250 m data for relatively large water bodies, MODIS 250 m data is of more limited use for smaller estuaries and bays or aquatic systems with complex shoreline geometry. To adequately examine TSM in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System (APES) of North Carolina, the large-scale synoptic view of MODIS and the higher spatial resolution of other sensors are required. MODIS, Landsat 7 ETM+ and FORMOSAT-2 remote sensing instrument (RSI) data were collected on 8 November, 24 November and 10 December, 2010. Using TSM images (mg/L) derived from MODIS 250 m band 1 (620–670 nm) data, Landsat 7 ETM+ 30 m band 3 (630–690 nm) and FORMOSAT-2 RSI 8 m band 3 (630−690 nm) atmospherically corrected images were calibrated to TSM for select areas of the APES. There was a significant linear relationship between both Landsat 7 ETM+ (r2 = 0.87, n = 599, P < 0.001) and FORMOSAT-2 RSI (r2 = 0.95, n = 583, P < 0.001) reflectance images and MODIS-derived TSM concentrations, thus providing consistent estimates of TSM at 250, 30 and 8 m pixel resolutions. This multi-sensor approach will support a broad range of investigations on the water quality of the APES and help guide sampling schemes of future field campaigns.
Keywords: total suspended matter; water quality; Landsat 7 ETM+; FORMOSAT-2 RSI; MODIS; sediment dynamics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, R.L.; Liu, C.-C.; Buonassissi, C.J.; Wu, A.-M. A Multi-Sensor Approach to Examining the Distribution of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, NC, USA. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 962-974.

AMA Style

Miller RL, Liu C-C, Buonassissi CJ, Wu A-M. A Multi-Sensor Approach to Examining the Distribution of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, NC, USA. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(5):962-974.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miller, Richard L.; Liu, Cheng-Chien; Buonassissi, Christopher J.; Wu, An-Ming. 2011. "A Multi-Sensor Approach to Examining the Distribution of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, NC, USA." Remote Sens. 3, no. 5: 962-974.

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