Special Issue "Flavivirus Immunity"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Nicolas Lévêque
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines, LITEC EA 4331, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France
Interests: virus; arbovirus; Herpes simplex virus; skin; keratinocyte; innate immunity; antiviral response; antimicrobial peptides; interferon-stimulated genes.
Dr. Magali Garcia
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines, LITEC EA 4331, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France
Interests: host-pathogen interactions; emerging viruses; arboviruses; skin; PAMPs, PRRs, innate immunity; antiviral response; antimicrobial peptides; inflammatory response
Dr. Charles Bodet
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Inflammation, Epithelial Tissues and Cytokines, LITEC EA-4331, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France
Interests: microbial pathogenesis; host–pathogen interactions; skin inflammation; innate immunity; cell signaling; cellular microbiology; antimicrobial compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Flaviviruses such as Dengue, Zika, Yellow fever, West Nile or Usutu viruses, are emerging pathogens resulting in rising infections throughout the world due to international trade globalization and climate changes. There is to date no antivirals whereas vaccines exist against some of them but display variable efficiency. Interactions between flaviviruses and their hosts are complex and result in induction of different types of immune responses. The fastest, the innate immune response, represents the first line of defense against infection. This response is dependent of cytosolic and transmembranar receptors involved in the recognition of conserved molecular patterns of the microorganisms. The subsequent activation of signaling pathways results in production of many cytokines, chemokines, interferon-stimulated genes and antimicrobial peptides as well as by the implementation of various programs of cell death in order to inhibit viral replication. Then, the adaptive immunity is triggered with both humoral and cell-mediated responses. However, many cellular and molecular aspects of these crucial steps to fight viruses remain largely unknown. This Special Issue aims to provide the reader with an overview of the latest works on immunity against flaviviruses. All original research and review articles that contribute to understand flavivirus pathophysiology and host response, including innate and adaptative immunities, are welcome. Identification of cell sensors and signaling pathways or virus associated molecular patterns, characterization of novel actors of the cell innate immunity as well as the description of their antiviral properties, highlighting  the role of immune cells and virus-specific humoral response, and unraveling viral evasion strategies are within the scope of this Special Issue. A better understanding of the defense mechanisms involved in host-virus interactions will undoubtedly allow, in the near future, devising new antiviral strategies through the design of novel therapeutic analogs or original preventive strategies against flaviviruses. 

Prof. Nicolas Lévêque
Dr. Magali Garcia
Dr. Charles Bodet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • flavivirus
  • innate immunity
  • adaptative immunity
  • pathogen recognition receptors
  • pathogen associated molecular patterns
  • signaling pathways
  • immune cells
  • antiviral

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
West Nile Virus Vaccination Protects against Usutu Virus Disease in Mice
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122352 - 23 Nov 2021
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Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. WNV and USUV circulate in both Africa and Europe and are closely related. Due to antigenic similarity, WNV-specific antibodies and USUV-specific antibodies have the potential [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. WNV and USUV circulate in both Africa and Europe and are closely related. Due to antigenic similarity, WNV-specific antibodies and USUV-specific antibodies have the potential to bind heterologous viruses; however, it is unclear whether this interaction may offer protection against infection. To investigate how prior WNV exposure would influence USUV infection, we used an attenuated WNV vaccine that contains the surface proteins of WNV in the backbone of a dengue virus 2 vaccine strain and protects against WNV disease. We hypothesized that vaccination with this attenuated WNV vaccine would protect against USUV infection. Neutralizing responses against WNV and USUV were measured in vitro using sera following vaccination. Sera from vaccinated CD-1 and Ifnar1−/− mice cross-neutralized with WNV and USUV. All mice were then subsequently challenged with an African or European USUV strain. In CD-1 mice, there was no difference in USUV titers between vaccinated and mock-vaccinated mice. However, in the Ifnar1−/− model, vaccinated mice had significantly higher survival rates and significantly lower USUV viremia compared to mock-vaccinated mice. Our results indicate that exposure to an attenuated form of WNV protects against severe USUV disease in mice and elicits a neutralizing response to both WNV and USUV. Future studies will investigate the immune mechanisms responsible for the protection against USUV infection induced by WNV vaccination, providing critical insight that will be essential for USUV and WNV vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavivirus Immunity)
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Communication
Laboratory Findings in Patients with Probable Dengue Diagnosis from an Endemic Area in Colombia in 2018
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071401 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
As demonstrated with the novel coronavirus pandemic, rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to determine the clinical characteristic of a disease and to improve vaccine development. Once the infected person is identified, hematological findings may be used to predict disease outcome and offer [...] Read more.
As demonstrated with the novel coronavirus pandemic, rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to determine the clinical characteristic of a disease and to improve vaccine development. Once the infected person is identified, hematological findings may be used to predict disease outcome and offer the correct treatment. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and clinical parameters are pivotal to track infections during clinical trials and set protection status. This is also applicable for re-emerging diseases like dengue fever, which causes outbreaks in Asia and Latin America every 4 to 5 years. Some areas in the US are also endemic for the transmission of dengue virus (DENV), the causal agent of dengue fever. However, significant number of DENV infections in rural areas are diagnosed solely by clinical and hematological findings because of the lack of availability of ELISA or PCR-based tests or the infrastructure to implement them in the near future. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are a less sensitive, yet they represent a timely way of detecting DENV infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hematological findings and the probability for an NS1-based DENV RDT to detect the DENV NS1 antigen. We also aimed to describe the hematological parameters that are associated with the diagnosis through each test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavivirus Immunity)
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