Special Issue "Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Elena Lucchi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
EURAC Research, Institute for Renewable Energy, Bolzano, Italy
Interests: energy efficiency of historic buildings; non destructive technologies; energy audit; energy simulation; preventive conservation of cultural heritage; highly efficient materials; renewable energy sources; BIPV integration in heritage sites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Davide Del Curto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 26, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: architectural conservation; preventive conservation; energy efficiency of historic buildings; 20th century architecture; conservation management plan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

European studies show that more than 40% of the European residential buildings have been constructed before the 1960s [1] and more than 50% before the 1970s [2]. European households are responsible for 68% of the total final energy use in buildings, mainly related to heating, cooling, hot water, cooking and appliances [1]. Historic buildings form a large proportion of the existing building stock of most European cities. They represent significant territorial resources and constitute an essential part of the cultural heritage. Improving energy efficiency in historic heritage, certainly preserving the value and the historical characters, is a topic of great importance. In fact, in recent years, the European Commission fostered several policies to reduce the final energy use (20 %) and greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions (20 % compared to 1990 levels), and to increase the share of renewable energy (20 % of overall energy consumption) until 2020 (Directive 2010/31/EU [3]; Directive 2009/28/EC [4] and Directive 2012/27/EU [5]). These Directives showed the big potential for achieving energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction through the refurbishment of existing buildings, besides the construction of new low-energy buildings. Conservation and energy refurbishment of historic buildings involves a series of complex issues that require a balance between preventive conservation, human comfort, energy efficiency, compliance with regulatory constraints, integration with renewable energy sources, economic feasibility, and microclimate monitoring to ensure an appropriate preservation of structures and artworks, as well as users’ comfort. Therefore, this Special Issue provides a forum to discuss and to identify new trends and developments in preventive conservation and energy efficiency of heritage buildings.

Some of the potential issues/themes covered include one or more of the following areas in both global and local contexts (the list is not exhaustive):

  • Preventive conservation of cultural heritage: a contemporary perspective and new approaches
  • Energy and environmental monitoring of heritage buildings and sites
  • Criteria and methodologies for energy efficiency of historic buildings
  • Case studies of energy retrofit of historic buildings
  • Energy efficiency of heritage sites and city centers
  • The impact of political and social agendas on energy efficiency of historic buildings
  • Technical standards / National and international legislation
  • Non-destructive technologies for cultural heritage (e.g. infrared thermography)
  • Energy audit and simulation of historic buildings
  • Building-HVAC modeling
  • Conservation and management of 20th Century architecture
  • Methodological approaches, specific methods and tools for preventive conservation and energy efficiency of cultural heritage
  • High energy performance materials applied to cultural heritage
  • Integration of heritage buildings and landscapes with renewable energy resources
  • The human factor in the issue of energy efficiency of historic buildings (behavioral sciences: economics, sociology)
  • Smart Solutions (e.g. Smart Home Technology) for preventive conservation and energy efficiency

References

[1] Buildings Performance Institute Europe: Europe’s buildings under the microscope. A country-by-country review of the energy performance of buildings. European Commission: Bruxelles, 2011.

[2] S. Birchall et al. Survey on the energy needs and architectural features of the EU building stock Deliverable 2.1a, European Project iNSPIRe. www. inspirefp7.eu, 2014.

[3] European Parliament, Directive 2010/31/EU of The European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (recast), Official Journal of the European Union.

[4] European Parliament, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Official Journal of the Europe.

[5] European Parliament, Directive 2012/27/EU of The European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, Official Journal of the Europe.

Prof. Dr. Elena Lucchi
Prof. Dr. Davide Del Curto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Energy Efficiency: A Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method for the Intervention on Built Heritage
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9223; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219223 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 428
Abstract
The awareness that a historic building is a complex system made up of interdependent parts and endowed with a specific energetic behavior is now widespread. Therefore, the energy improvement of a historic building does not only consist of designing individual construction elements or [...] Read more.
The awareness that a historic building is a complex system made up of interdependent parts and endowed with a specific energetic behavior is now widespread. Therefore, the energy improvement of a historic building does not only consist of designing individual construction elements or high-performance materials. On the contrary, it is based on the ability to analyze the buildings and recognize and enhance the specific thermal characteristics of each individual situation. Over the past two decades, the publication of European directives aimed at improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings has led each country to promulgate national guidelines in order to help operators planning and implementing energy improvement actions for historic buildings. The guidelines of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage prescribe a method to evaluate the effectiveness of different energy improvement interventions in historic buildings through a qualitative-quantitative analysis based on static energy simulation. However, the ministerial guidelines do not prescribe any method for the analytical evaluation of other key issues aimed at the success of any energy improvement action for the historic building. Based on the literary and standard review on EEHB 2000–2020, this paper presents a multi-criteria comparative analysis method of energy improvement techniques for historic buildings in order to support operators in choosing the most suitable action for each case study. The method analyses each energy improvement technique according to four parameters: energy efficiency (increase in expected efficiency), compatibility (ability to ensure the protection of the morphological, material, and architectural features of the historic building), durability, and cost effectiveness. The method is based on descriptive and analytic forms for the different parts of the historic building and for the different improvement actions. These have been experimentally verified on a masonry case study, representative of widespread built heritage. The result opens the possibility of implementing the national guidelines and increasing their effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Heritage Reconstruction Planning, Sustainability Dimensions, and the Case of the Khaz’al Diwan in Kuwait
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8805; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218805 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Although attempts for formulating sustainable approaches in heritage management have been ongoing since the 1980s, sustainability dimensions in the context of ‘reconstruction’ have remained an unexplored research area. By investigating the case of the ruined Khaz’al Diwan in Kuwait, an architectural heritage site [...] Read more.
Although attempts for formulating sustainable approaches in heritage management have been ongoing since the 1980s, sustainability dimensions in the context of ‘reconstruction’ have remained an unexplored research area. By investigating the case of the ruined Khaz’al Diwan in Kuwait, an architectural heritage site in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage (WH) Tentative List, we explore and compare the roles of the ‘cultural continuity’ and ‘environmental protection’ pillars of sustainability in reconstruction planning. By employing rapid ethnographic surveying and case study methods, we first investigate the approach to ‘cultural continuity’ from the State’s stance and through local community perceptions. Albeit with nuances, the surveying revealed a preference for historicist reconstruction. However, the Khaz’al Diwan, like most of the heritage structures in the Gulf region, was originally constructed with coral stone, which is now protected under environmental laws. How feasible is the use of replacement materials in terms of sustainability perspectives that is also acceptable from heritage perspectives? Considering the high cooling loads required in this climatic region, we prioritized the energy performance of the construction materials of the external walls and the roof. Computer simulations based on scenarios testing same-type and replacement construction materials revealed how the latter could be considered as an alternative in a historicist reconstruction. The discussion revolves around the environmental and cultural parameters that are instrumental in reconstruction planning. This ultimately highlights how reconstruction policies must be shaped to redefine the role and scope of material authenticity to accommodate the local environmental and cultural realities in the wider Gulf region and Middle Eastern context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Restoration of a Historic Building in Order to Improve Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving—Case Study—The Dining Room within the Žiča Monastery Property
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6271; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156271 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
A proper systematic approach to the restoration of historic buildings is crucial in the preservation of heritage buildings. This paper presents the unity between the restoration of a historic building and sustainability. The aim of the research is to establish an effective method [...] Read more.
A proper systematic approach to the restoration of historic buildings is crucial in the preservation of heritage buildings. This paper presents the unity between the restoration of a historic building and sustainability. The aim of the research is to establish an effective method for the restoration of historic buildings and their reuse and sustainable renovation in terms of energy efficiency, in accordance with modern needs and conservation requirements while maintaining the authentic appearance. The main method in the paper is the observation of a historic building during its restoration and exploitation, analysis and evaluation of the results achieved in improving energy efficiency and energy saving in the example of the building within the Žica Monastery in Serbia, a cultural monument of exceptional importance. The subject of the research is the Dining Room within the Žiča Monastery and the analysis of the restoration results in order to ensure energy refurbishment and cultural heritage enhancement. The research findings are recommendations for the restoration and adaptive re-use of historic buildings, in accordance with modern requirements for comfort and environmental protection. The greatest contribution of this paper is the practical verification of energy refurbishment of the restored historic building, the Dining Room, by applying the principles and measures of energy efficiency, maintaining the authentic appearance of the building, in accordance with the conservation requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Advanced Intervention Protocol in the Energy Rehabilitation of Heritage Buildings: A Miñones Barracks Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6270; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156270 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
Bearing in mind that dwellings generate a high environmental impact, the aim of this research is to improve their energy efficiency. The incorporation of an insulating layer in the extrados of the building envelope is the most effective way of reducing the transmittance [...] Read more.
Bearing in mind that dwellings generate a high environmental impact, the aim of this research is to improve their energy efficiency. The incorporation of an insulating layer in the extrados of the building envelope is the most effective way of reducing the transmittance of a facade, eliminating thermal bridges, and optimizing its energy consumption. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of this solution in terms of thermal protection. However, this process collides with the preservation of the original composition of buildings with ornate facades. This article presents a protocol for the rehabilitation of ornate facades of historic buildings through the application of an insulating layer on the outside of the walls. The protocol shows that advanced techniques applied with an integrated approach permit compatibility between energy rehabilitation and the preservation of the original value. In addition to applying strategies of a high technological level, the protocol proposes a reflection upon a balanced intervention on ornamental elements, as well as the relationship between the degree of energy improvement of an ornate facade, and the degree of preservation of the original composition. A methodology is established that combines different avant-guard techniques and systems. These include capturing reality in 3D, the Building Information Model (BIM), monitoring, advanced manufacturing, and active and passive solution simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
An AHP-Based Methodology for the Evaluation and Choice of Integrated Interventions on Historic Buildings
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145795 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
Historic buildings are at the center of cultural and economic interests, due to issues related to their conservation and protection as well as their use and technical-performance efficiency. They are often considered within the accepted meaning of ‘assets-resource’. In recent years, there has [...] Read more.
Historic buildings are at the center of cultural and economic interests, due to issues related to their conservation and protection as well as their use and technical-performance efficiency. They are often considered within the accepted meaning of ‘assets-resource’. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the research and development of methodologies to appropriately intervene on this type of heritage assets. This contribution defines a methodology to select interventions capable of combining protection requirements with performance upgrading, as part of integrated seismic improvement and energy-environmental retrofit strategies. The aim is to develop a tool that not only supports Public Administrations in the planning/designing of appropriate interventions but also private investors in a partnership perspective. Given the need to use a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach, the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method has been used; it allows for the comparison of various intervention alternatives on the basis of certain evaluation criteria, aimed at obtaining a preference index. This approach allows us to support the decision-maker in making the most appropriate choice, according to a rationally structured procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Environmental Risk Management for Museums in Historic Buildings through an Innovative Approach: A Case Study of the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan (Italy)
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125155 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
In the contemporary age, museums are dealing with unexpected challenges, related to the transformation of social structures, educative methods and cultural diffusion. The conversion of heritage buildings into exhibition halls and the renovation of existent exhibits involve a series of environmental risks and [...] Read more.
In the contemporary age, museums are dealing with unexpected challenges, related to the transformation of social structures, educative methods and cultural diffusion. The conversion of heritage buildings into exhibition halls and the renovation of existent exhibits involve a series of environmental risks and preservation issues. The study aims to demonstrate that conservation and human comfort are mutually compatible, when based on rational planning, interdisciplinary cooperation, and extensive knowledge of the features of buildings and collections. This study carries out an operative strategy for assessing and managing the environmental risks in museum buildings. To validate its suitability, it is applied to the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan (Italy), an old palace completely reshaped in the 20th century following the typical design concepts of the “Modern Movement of Architecture” (e.g., rational planning, use of innovative technologies and materials, profusion of natural light integrated with artificial lighting, etc.). Several solutions adopted in these years caused both heritage decay and human discomfort. In addition, the insertion of new functions required a complete modification of the original design project. For this reason, the proposed tool supports the environmental risk management connected with these transformations, also defining clear maintenance guidelines, and planning low-engineering and low-impact solutions to satisfy, in a practical way, the daily needs of conservators, heritage authorities and designers. Furthermore, technical skills and the awareness of museum staff has been improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Reviewing Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment Tools through Critical Heritage Studies
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041605 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
This article reports on a critical review of how cultural heritage is addressed in two internationally well-known and used neighborhood assessment tools (NSAs): BREEAM Communities (BREEAM-C) and LEED Neighborhood Design (LEED-ND). The review was done through a discourse analysis in which critical heritage [...] Read more.
This article reports on a critical review of how cultural heritage is addressed in two internationally well-known and used neighborhood assessment tools (NSAs): BREEAM Communities (BREEAM-C) and LEED Neighborhood Design (LEED-ND). The review was done through a discourse analysis in which critical heritage studies, together with a conceptual linking of heritage to sustainability, served as the point of departure. The review showed that while aspects related to heritage are present in both NSAs, heritage is re-presented as primarily being a matter of safeguarding material expressions of culture, such as buildings and other artifacts, while natural elements and immaterial-related practices are disregarded. Moreover, the NSAs institutionalize heritage as a field of formal knowledge and expert-dominated over the informal knowledge of communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
A Stochastic Approach to LCA of Internal Insulation Solutions for Historic Buildings
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041535 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
Internal insulation is a typical renovation solution in historic buildings with valuable façades. However, it entails moisture-related risks, which affect the durability and life-cycle environmental performance. In this context, the EU project RIBuild developed a risk assessment method for both hygrothermal and life-cycle [...] Read more.
Internal insulation is a typical renovation solution in historic buildings with valuable façades. However, it entails moisture-related risks, which affect the durability and life-cycle environmental performance. In this context, the EU project RIBuild developed a risk assessment method for both hygrothermal and life-cycle performance of internal insulation, to support decision-making. This paper presents the stochastic Life Cycle Assessment method developed, which couples the LCA model to a Monte-Carlo simulation, providing results expressed by probability distributions. It is applied to five insulation solutions, considering different uncertain input parameters and building heating scenarios. In addition, the influence of data variability and quality on the result is analyzed, by using input data from two sources: distributions derived from a generic Life Cycle Inventory database and “deterministic” data from Environmental Product Declarations. The outcomes highlight remarkable differences between the two datasets that lead to substantial variations on the systems performance ranking at the production stage. Looking at the life-cycle impact, the general trend of the output distributions is quite similar among simulation groups and insulation systems. Hence, while a ranking of the solutions based on a “deterministic” approach provides misleading information, the stochastic approach provides more realistic results in the context of decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
The Application of Photovoltaic Systems in Sacred Buildings for the Purpose of Electric Power Production: The Case Study of the Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel in Belgrade
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041408 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
In light of climate changes, technological development and the use of renewable energy sources are considered very important nowadays, both in newly designed structures and reconstructed historic buildings, resulting in the reduction in the commercial energy consumption and CO2 environmental emissions. This [...] Read more.
In light of climate changes, technological development and the use of renewable energy sources are considered very important nowadays, both in newly designed structures and reconstructed historic buildings, resulting in the reduction in the commercial energy consumption and CO2 environmental emissions. This paper explores the possibilities of improving the energy efficiency of sacred heritage buildings by utilizing photovoltaic systems. As an exceptionally significant cultural good, the Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel in Belgrade shall serve as a case study, with the aim of examining the methods of mounting photovoltaic (PV) panels, taking into account the fact that the authenticity and the aesthetic value of this cultural monument must remain intact. A comparative analysis of the two options for installing PV panels on the southwestern roof of the church was performed using simulations in PVgis and PVsist V6.84 software, with the aim of establishing the most efficient option in terms of power generation. The simulation results show that photovoltaic panels can produce 151,650 kWh (Option 1) and 150,894 kWh (Option 2) per year, while the required amount of energy is 42,726 kWh. The electricity produced exceeds the electricity requirements for the decorative lighting of the Cathedral Church, so it can be used for other purposes in the sacred complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Historical and Scientific Investigations into the Use of Hydraulic Lime in Korea and Preventive Conservation of Historic Masonry Structures
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5169; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195169 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
In addition to non-hydraulic lime, natural hydraulic lime (NHL) is a material widely used to repair and restore historic buildings. In Korea, although lime mortars have been used as important building materials for thousands of years, the sharing of information and technology with [...] Read more.
In addition to non-hydraulic lime, natural hydraulic lime (NHL) is a material widely used to repair and restore historic buildings. In Korea, although lime mortars have been used as important building materials for thousands of years, the sharing of information and technology with other countries has been relatively inactive. While not recognizing the suitability of NHL as a repair material, undesirable materials such as Portland cement have often been selected due to their high strength, ease of use, and hydraulicity, but unfortunately, this has resulted in the irreversible damage of existing elements, especially in historic masonry structures. This study aims to emphasize the need for hydraulic lime for the sustainable preservation of Korea’s architectural heritage. To justify its use, historical and scientific investigations were conducted. By reviewing literature written in the 15th century, it was found that dark limestone was used to manufacture building lime. Based on this, the chemical compositions of different-colored limestone were experimentally analyzed, and significant evidence was found that dicalcium silicate was formed in the quicklime manufactured by calcining blue-green and green-black limestone. Prior to the 19th century, it would have been impossible to record the chemical compositions of various types of limestone, except for visual observations such as color differences. Fortunately, this important information was recorded in royal documents and has been handed down to the present day. Thus, knowledge from 500 years ago could be scientifically interpreted using the latest technology. The link between the historical record and the experimental results shown in this study can contribute to the selection of a suitable material. This is a method for the preventive preservation of historic masonry structures, as it can significantly lower the possibility of future damages caused by efflorescence and freeze–thaw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Energy Efficiency and Economic Viability as Decision Factors in the Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4946; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184946 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
The restoration of historical buildings often implies a change in the main use of the building so that it can once again become a part of people’s lives. Among the interventions needed to adapt the buildings to their new purpose, improving the energy [...] Read more.
The restoration of historical buildings often implies a change in the main use of the building so that it can once again become a part of people’s lives. Among the interventions needed to adapt the buildings to their new purpose, improving the energy performance is always a challenge due to their particular construction solutions and the influence that these improvements can have on their protected elements. The regulations in force in European Union (EU) member states leave a gap in how the energy performance evaluations in these types of buildings can be defined, and even exclude them from the process. However, rehabilitation of buildings is always seen as an opportunity, because it allows the building to once again be useful to society and play an important role in people’s lives. At the same time, it can also improve their performance and allow benefits to be gained from their use through a reduction in maintenance costs. In the rehabilitation process, the economic viability of the renovation plays a fundamental role which must be compared, in the case of protected buildings, to its impact on the architecture of the building. Since 2002, the EU has issued directives with the aim that countries should define objective methods to improve the energy performance of buildings and, in recent times, methods that demonstrate the amortization of such improvements. Within the process of implementing the new methodologies adapted to the EPBD, Spain was one of the last EU countries to define a process for the energy assessment of existing buildings, introducing an analysis of the economic viability of the construction improvements suggested in the process. The objective of this research was to describe the decision-making process during the evaluation of the feasibility of introducing construction improvements to the energy performance of two catalogued historic buildings located in a warm climate. The estimated energy consumption was evaluated, the net present value (NPV) and the payback period of the investment calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the real energy consumption. At the end of the process, it can be said that the methodologies adopted in Spain offer results that can lead designers to make wrong decisions that may affect the protected heritage values of these buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Review

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Review
Aerogel-Based Plasters and Energy Efficiency of Historic Buildings. Literature Review and Guidelines for Manufacturing Specimens Destined for Thermal Tests
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9457; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229457 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
This paper presents a literature review about aerogel-based products for building, focusing on the plasters used within the architectural restoration sector. Aerogel has entered the construction field in the last two decades as a component of many insulation products, due to its high [...] Read more.
This paper presents a literature review about aerogel-based products for building, focusing on the plasters used within the architectural restoration sector. Aerogel has entered the construction field in the last two decades as a component of many insulation products, due to its high thermal performance. Aerogel-based plasters allow the matching of high thermal performance and limited thickness. This makes them suitable when retrofitting an existing building and also when restoring a heritage building. We analyze the results of recent research, focusing on the most commonly used methods for assessing the thermal performances and durability of aerogel-based plasters. As a result of this review, we propose a guideline for manufacturing samples destined for laboratory tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Other

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Case Report
Historic Building Energy Audit and Retrofit Simulation with Hemp-Lime Plaster—A Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4620; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114620 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Hemp-lime composite is a natural material, which is being increasingly used and studied in the construction sector, thanks to its recyclability, hygrothermal comfort and healthiness features. The aim of this paper is to test the benefits in terms of energy efficiency achieved through [...] Read more.
Hemp-lime composite is a natural material, which is being increasingly used and studied in the construction sector, thanks to its recyclability, hygrothermal comfort and healthiness features. The aim of this paper is to test the benefits in terms of energy efficiency achieved through the use of hemp-lime composite as insulation in a possible refurbishment intervention. With the aim of extending the knowledge about the benefits achieved through from the integration of this natural material into construction production process, a real building in south of Italy was selected and a substitution of the standard gypsum-lime plaster with a hemp-lime one was simulated by means of a specific software (Termus® by Acca Sotware, Bagnoli Irpino, Italy), serving for the assessment of the energy performance. Case study analysis highlighted the good thermal insulation properties of hemp-based plaster, allowing thermal dispersion to decrease in the winter season and improve the summer performance of the walls by approximately 20% compared to traditional plaster. This results in a one-level improvement of the building in energy classification according to Italian regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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