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Trends in Emerging Markets, Globalization, Economic Development, Entrepreneurship and Management Strategies as a Result of Cross-Border Cooperation

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 67205

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Applied Sciences, WSB University, 41-300 Dąbrowa Górnicza, Poland
Interests: cross-border cooperation (CBC); environmental impact assessment; international cooperation; landscape architecture; regional planning; spatial planning and territorial governance; strategic and common planning; sustainable tourism; urban and city planning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
Interests: development economics; sustainable development; econometric models; regional development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As globalization advances, trends and shifts in society can be seen influencing several economic and socioeconomic aspects. As cross-border cooperation has been increasing across various regions, this leads to a variety of changes in markets, both established and emerging, trading methods, and management aspects. As a result of this, it is important to study the changes, either negative or positive, on an economic and social level emanating from this phenomenon. The interrelationship between international environments, transactions, and cooperation projects can trigger a long-lasting process of transforming economic and socioeconomic conditions, leading to more enabling and sustainable cities, societies, and regions. The results from new and stronger business networks and cluster environments created through cooperation projects, strategies, synergies, and transactions are already reshaping the socioeconomic European panorama.

Contextually, the present Special Issue (SI) expects to cross and analyze the dynamics and patterns ongoing in this international environments—bearing in mind the sustainability principles and the related issues that may influence it. Thus, the international environments and their relationship with emerging markets, not only in Europe but all over the globe, as well as the rising phenomenon of economic development and entrepreneurship, are just some examples of the issues that will be expected to be discussed within this SI.

Thus, the editors encourage the submission of works related to the topics of international relationships, international business, international trade, economic development, cross-border cooperation, common planning, emerging markets, entrepreneurship, sustainable planning, territorial governance, and management, among many others that could relate to the main scope of the SI and consequently provide new and enriched literature regarding the importance of cross-border cooperation.

References:

Castanho, R.A.; Loures, L.; Cabezas, J.; Fernández-Pozo, L. Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) in Southern Europe—An Iberian Case Study. The Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz. Sustainability 2017, 9, 360. doi: 10.3390/su9030360.

Kurowska-Pysz, J.; Castanho, R.A.; Loures, L. Sustainable Planning of Cross-Border Cooperation: A Strategy for Alliances in Border Cities. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1416. doi: 10.3390/su10051416.

Kurowska-Pysz, J.; Szczepańska-Woszczyna, K. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2226. doi: 10.3390/su9122226.

Meyer, D.F, de Bruyn, C & Meyer, N. 2017. The importance of tourism in regional economic development: A time-series analysis. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, Volume VIII, Issue 4(20):784-797.

Meyer, D.F. & Meyer, N. 2016. The relationship between the creation of an enabling environment and economic development: A comparative analysis of management at local government sphere. Polish Journal of Management Studies, Vol 14(2):150-160.

Meyer, D.F. & Meyer, N. 2019. Assessment of Inclusive Growth performance: A comparative analysis of the BRICS countries. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, 15(4): 191-207.

Meyer, D.F., Meyer, N. & Neethling, J.R. 2016. Perceptions of business owners on service delivery and the creation of an enabling environment. Administratio Publica, Vol 24(3), 52-73.

Meyer, N. & Meyer, D.F. 2016. The Creation of an Enabling Environment for small businesses to prosper by Local Government through Service Delivery and Management. Paper presented at the 6th International Scientific Conference of Management in High Tatras, Slovakia on 29 September 2016 to 2 October 2016. p. 123-129.

Meyer, N. & Meyer, D.F. 2017. An econometric analysis of entrepreneurial activity, economic growth and employment: The case of the BRICS countries. International Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol 11(2):429-441.

Meyer, N. 2018. Local government and the creation of an enabling environment: Perceptions of female entrepreneurs. Paper presented at the 7th International Scientific Conference of Management in High Tatras, Slovakia on 26 September 2018 to 29 September 2018. p. 835-841.

Paunović, I.; Jovanović, V. Implementation of Sustainable Tourism in the German Alps: A Case Study. Sustainability 2017, 9, 226. doi: 10.3390/su9020226.

Schenone, C.; Marrè Brunenghi, M.; Pittaluga, I.; Hajar, A.; Kamali, W.; Montaresi, F.; Rasheed, M.; Wahab, A.A.; El Moghrabi, Y.; Manasrah, R.; Merhaby, D.; Montani, L. Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on MESP Project. Sustainability 2017, 9, 112. doi: 10.3390/su9010112.

Schipper, R.P.J.R.; Silvius, A.J.G. Characteristics of Smart Sustainable City Development: Implications for Project Management. Smart Cities 2018, 1, 75-97. doi: 10.3390/smartcities1010005.

Wróblewski, Ł.; Dziadzia, B.; Dacko-Pikiewicz, Z. Sustainable Management of the Offer of Cultural Institutions in the Cross-Border Market for Cultural Services—Barriers and Conditions. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3253. doi: 10.3390/su10093253.

Dr. Rui Alexandre Castanho
Prof. Daniel Francois Meyer
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cross-border cooperation
  • economic development, emerging markets
  • entrepreneurship
  • common planning
  • international relationships
  • international trade, sustainable planning
  • enabling environment, territorial governance and management

Published Papers (26 papers)

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21 pages, 1861 KiB  
Article
Examining the Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation on New Venture Performance in the Emerging Economy of Lebanon: A Moderated Mediation Analysis
by Ahmad Mohammad Saleh and Seyed Alireza Athari
Sustainability 2023, 15(15), 11982; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511982 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Despite scholarly debates on the role of entrepreneurial orientation, its effect on new venture performance remains largely understudied, particularly in the context of emerging economies. Determining this association is crucial and has an important implication for scholars and managers of SMEs to increase [...] Read more.
Despite scholarly debates on the role of entrepreneurial orientation, its effect on new venture performance remains largely understudied, particularly in the context of emerging economies. Determining this association is crucial and has an important implication for scholars and managers of SMEs to increase performance. Therefore, using the resource-based view and upper-echelon theories, this study examines this link by considering the mediating role of opportunity exploitation and the moderating role of transformational leadership in the case of an emerging market in Lebanon. The resource-based view theory discusses the importance of intangible and tangible resources in obtaining a sustainable competitive edge. The upper-echelon theory also connects the attributes of firm performance and top employee management. To achieve this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 411 managers and owners, 346 of whom were men and 65 of whom were women, of SMEs in the top five provinces of North Lebanon, South Lebanon, Mount Lebanon, Beirut, and Bekaa, where the majority of SMEs are located. This study also collected the data in 2022 and performed moderated mediation analysis to probe this nexus. The empirical results show that entrepreneurial orientation has a positive direct and indirect (through opportunity exploitation) effect on new venture performance. Furthermore, it reveals that opportunity exploitation has a positive effect on new venture performance and partially mediates the entrepreneurial orientation–new venture performance nexus. Furthermore, the results highlight that transformational leadership moderates the direct entrepreneurial orientation–new venture performance nexus, and the positive relationship is stronger for managers (or owners) with higher-level transformational leadership. Moreover, the results reveal that transformational leadership moderates the indirect effect between entrepreneurial orientation and new venture performance through opportunity exploitation, and the extent of the indirect effect is enhanced for managers (or owners) with higher-level transformational leadership. The results are robust and have important policy implications. The current research offers crucial managerial implications for the management of SMEs by paying attention to significant drivers of entrepreneurial orientation and opportunity exploitation. The findings also suggest that entrepreneurs and managers of new ventures must transform their entrepreneurial strategic posture into opportunity exploitation behaviors by pinpointing market inefficiencies and consumer needs, launching novel products and services, and taking advantage of opportunities for new products to enter the market to maximize financial gain. Full article
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15 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
The Role of Country Governance in Achieving the Banking Sector’s Sustainability in Vulnerable Environments: New Insight from Emerging Economies
by Seyed Alireza Athari, Chafic Saliba, Danielle Khalife and Madonna Salameh-Ayanian
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10538; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310538 - 04 Jul 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Extant literature suggests that the banking sector’s sustainability is achievable by minimizing the risk factors, in particular, credit risk (CR). Despite prior studies, there are fewer attempts to considerably probe the role of country governance settings in managing CR and ultimately achieving sustainability. [...] Read more.
Extant literature suggests that the banking sector’s sustainability is achievable by minimizing the risk factors, in particular, credit risk (CR). Despite prior studies, there are fewer attempts to considerably probe the role of country governance settings in managing CR and ultimately achieving sustainability. Therefore, this study aims to test this nexus for the banking sector operating in BRICS developing economies. Specifically, this research attempts to explore whether country governance has a moderator role between CR and the exposure of environments to risk factors. To achieve these objectives, we conduct panel data analysis using the quantile (QR) and fixed effects (FE) estimation methods. The results show that increasing liquidity, profitability, capital requirements, and income diversification lead to decreasing CR, whereas increasing inefficiency causes an increase in CR. In addition, the results reveal that a country’s increasing vulnerability to a specific financial risk index (FRI), economic risk index (ERI), and political risk index (PRI); developing capital markets; increasing lending interest rates; and weakening country governance quality is significantly linked to increasing CR. Remarkably, the results underscore that country governance has a significant moderator role, and by enhancing the quality of country governance, the impact of country-specific FRI, ERI, and PRI on CR could be attenuated. Full article
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21 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Economic and Spatial Restructuring in the Aras Economic Zone: The Impact of Cross-Border Cooperation
by Hamid Jafarzadeh and Yangdong Feng
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10289; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310289 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Cross-border cooperation is critical for regional development capabilities. China and Iran are increasingly strengthening their partnership with the Belt and Road Initiative. This study constructs a regional socio-spatial development index system from the perspective of locals and establishes a DPSIR model with five [...] Read more.
Cross-border cooperation is critical for regional development capabilities. China and Iran are increasingly strengthening their partnership with the Belt and Road Initiative. This study constructs a regional socio-spatial development index system from the perspective of locals and establishes a DPSIR model with five layers: drivers, pressures, states, impacts, and responses. Bottom-up regional analyses (economic, social, and spatial) were performed to explore local perspectives on cross-border cooperation and assess the possible value system of development in a specific region. Based on 41 quantitative indicators and a genetic algorithm, causal links between economic changes and spatial restructuring were determined and verified. The findings show that cross-border cooperative growth is possible in the research region. Due to regional heterogeneity, excessive pressure on states, and evolving imbalances, we found imbalanced development inside and between sections. Additionally, foreign direct investment enhances cross-border cooperation, which can preserve and develop local economies. Additionally, this study provides suggestions and references for cross-border cooperation opportunities, challenges, and decision-making. Full article
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21 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
How Does Trade Openness Affect Output Growth? A Perspective from the Input Diversity
by Jiajie Yu and Shuang Meng
Sustainability 2023, 15(11), 9039; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15119039 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Globalization has led to a rapid increase in the international trade of intermediate goods, which plays a vital role in economic growth. This study investigates whether trade openness facilitates output growth by improving access to intermediate inputs. In particular, it has been examined [...] Read more.
Globalization has led to a rapid increase in the international trade of intermediate goods, which plays a vital role in economic growth. This study investigates whether trade openness facilitates output growth by improving access to intermediate inputs. In particular, it has been examined whether industrial sectors with higher intermediate input diversity grow relatively faster in countries that are more open to trade. Through the adoption of the difference-in-differences approach, we find strong evidence that this is indeed the case based on a large cross-country sample. The empirical estimation indicates that industries more diversified in intermediate inputs will grow by 2.6 percentage points faster in more outward-oriented countries. Furthermore, our results are robust to various specification checks and are unlikely to be driven by omitted variables, outliers, or reverse causality. By identifying the mechanism through which trade openness facilitates output growth, our study highlights the additional gains from trade liberalization that may be undermined by increased protectionism, especially for industrial sectors that rely on diversified intermediate inputs. Full article
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29 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
Developing a Digital Business Incubator Model to Foster Entrepreneurship, Business Growth, and Academia–Industry Connections
by Roberto Vaz, João Vidal de Carvalho and Sandrina Francisca Teixeira
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7209; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097209 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5019
Abstract
The roles and positive impacts of business incubators, including virtual ones, in promoting entrepreneurship and innovation in multiple industries, and their consequent contributions to fostering sustainable economic growth and social development, have been highly advocated in the extant literature. Nonetheless, several authors highlight [...] Read more.
The roles and positive impacts of business incubators, including virtual ones, in promoting entrepreneurship and innovation in multiple industries, and their consequent contributions to fostering sustainable economic growth and social development, have been highly advocated in the extant literature. Nonetheless, several authors highlight the urgent need to further carry out research concerning these structures’ operation models by involving end users, since knowledge related to this phenomenon remains scant. This study sets out to convey the third phase of a broader research and development project following a design science research methodology. Ultimately, this contributes to the field by proposing a new virtual business incubator model with immediate practical applicability. This model was cocreated and validated with 23 incubator managers and startup founders from 15 business incubation centers during focus group sessions and organized into 8 dimensions concluded as fundamental in future digital incubation programs. Moreover, this study offers knowledgeable guidelines to support academics, practitioners, organization managers, or other professionals interested in building and running virtual business incubators. The main strengths and weaknesses of the proposed model are also highlighted, and several recommendations are provided to surpass the expected challenging stages of its implementation. Full article
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17 pages, 1015 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Economic Welfare Gains from Trade Facilitation in the Andean Community
by Mehmet Nazif and Glenn P. Jenkins
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 6152; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15076152 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Border procedures around the globe can act as barriers hindering international trade. Another impact of these procedures relates to their economic resource costs. In this study, using a microeconomic framework of international trade, the potential economic gains are estimated for reductions in trade [...] Read more.
Border procedures around the globe can act as barriers hindering international trade. Another impact of these procedures relates to their economic resource costs. In this study, using a microeconomic framework of international trade, the potential economic gains are estimated for reductions in trade administration costs related to sea border trade in the Andean Community (CAN) as well as for the increase in import and export trades that are stimulated as a consequence of the reduction in trade administration costs. The potential cost reductions are estimated separately for import and export trade. The estimates are made with respect to the existing levels of trade flows. We measure the excess economic cost of the current trade administration procedures in CAN with respect to two benchmark levels of trade administration costs, namely those for Chile and Singapore. Our results suggest that improving the trade administration cost levels to match those of the reference countries will enable CAN countries to enjoy economic resource savings of between USD 1.25 billion and 1.5 billion annually, corresponding to 0.19% to 0.23% of their gross domestic product. Given the current trade environment of CAN nations, relevant policy and reform options are suggested. The key policy recommendation is to improve the electronic single window system for trade administration and in particular, the interconnectivity of information flows between the member countries of CAN. Maintaining the port infrastructure is also critical for the delivery of efficient services for the movement of goods. Full article
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18 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Impact of Biochar as a Soil Conditioner to Improve the Soil Properties of Saline Soil and Productivity of Tomato
by Md. Zonayet, Alok Kumar Paul, Md. Faisal-E-Alam, Khalid Syfullah, Rui Alexandre Castanho and Daniel Meyer
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 4832; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15064832 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Biochar increases crop yield, soil reliability, and carbon sequestration. This study examined how biochar affected soil properties and tomato yield in saline soil. The experiment was conducted in areas surrounding Khulna Agricultural University and in farmers’ fields close to Khulna, Bangladesh. The experiment’s [...] Read more.
Biochar increases crop yield, soil reliability, and carbon sequestration. This study examined how biochar affected soil properties and tomato yield in saline soil. The experiment was conducted in areas surrounding Khulna Agricultural University and in farmers’ fields close to Khulna, Bangladesh. The experiment’s layout was a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Tomato cultivation with eight treatments and three replications used biochar with the recommended fertilizer dose (RFD). Using biochar in saline soil significantly influenced tomato growth and yield character. Days after planting, plant height was dramatically impacted by various biochar treatment levels. The height of tomato plants ranged from 65.38 to 46.37 cm, yielding 49.23 tons per hectare. The experiments used biochar treatments to grow more tomatoes than traditional fertilizers and a control treatment. Compared with control treatments, biochar also changed the properties of salty soil after it was harvested. The soil’s pH is 6.51 and its particle density is highest at 2.65. The control treatments had the highest EC value, which was 2800, and the biochar application treatments had the lowest EC values. At 100 s/cm, the EC value made the soil 0.6 ppt saltier in the control treatment without biochar, but adding biochar made the soil 0.1 ppt less salty. The percentages of carbon, nitrogen, and organic matter were also the highest that they had been (1.88%, 1.073%, and 2.58%, respectively). The phosphorus concentration in the soil was 19.47 g/g after harvesting. The majority of K and S values used to treat salty soils are interchangeable. Significant changes in tomato growth, yield, and soil properties occurred when biochar was combined with recommended fertilizer doses and applied to saline soil for tomato cultivation. Full article
21 pages, 2498 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Reverse Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions in Emerging Countries on the Division Position in the Global Value Chain: A Systematic Framework of the Third Country Effect
by Xia Liu, Hanwen Sun, Wei Liu and Jiaqi Fang
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 4776; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15064776 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1795
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to build a systematic framework of the spatial spillover effects of host country heterogeneity, and to illustrate the impact of the third country effect of reverse cross-border mergers and acquisitions in emerging countries on the division position [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to build a systematic framework of the spatial spillover effects of host country heterogeneity, and to illustrate the impact of the third country effect of reverse cross-border mergers and acquisitions in emerging countries on the division position in the global value chain. We develop a composite index to measure the gap in the global value chain position, and use the ADB-MRIO database in UIBE GVC from 2010 to 2019 to conduct an empirical test, which includes 27 sample countries. The spatial modeling results suggest that both the third country effect of reverse cross-border mergers and acquisitions and the direct effect of forward cross-border mergers and acquisitions are conducive to narrowing the gap in the division position in the global value chain of China, as well as the host country. Therefore, reverse cross-border mergers and acquisitions should develop the export platform based cross-border mergers and acquisitions, while forward cross-border mergers and acquisitions are suitable for choosing the destination countries directly. An interesting insight shown by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity test is that the narrowing effect of cross-border mergers and acquisitions on the gap in the division position varies with time and space. There is also a trend of increasing convergence and spatial differentiation, and the change of this spatial spillover effect may be closely related to the bilateral relations between countries. The model of the third country effect with spatial heterogeneity affirms the spatial impact of host country heterogeneity, and provides empirical evidence for cross-border mergers and acquisitions based on export platforms. Full article
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22 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Comfortable but Not Brilliant: Exploring the Incubation Experience of Founders of Technology-Based Startups
by Roberto Vaz, Sandrina Francisca Teixeira and João Vidal de Carvalho
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15864; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315864 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Business incubators have been highlighted as vital contributors and value-creation organizations to entrepreneurs during their venture developments by offering them multiple resources and specialized support. Notwithstanding, several authors call attention to the significant literature gap concerning research focusing on entrepreneurs’ daily lived incubation [...] Read more.
Business incubators have been highlighted as vital contributors and value-creation organizations to entrepreneurs during their venture developments by offering them multiple resources and specialized support. Notwithstanding, several authors call attention to the significant literature gap concerning research focusing on entrepreneurs’ daily lived incubation experiences to understand their perspectives on incubators. This study aims to explore which aspects are perceived as creating value or limiting the venture development of 16 founders of technology-based startups by interviewing them. Ultimately, it contributes valuable insights about incubation factors that enhance or hinder their overall incubation experience. It suggests that entrepreneurs consider intangible resources and social and relational aspects as the most enriching dimensions of their incubation experiences and concludes with the services they consider to be more important. Moreover, it also reveals negative aspects of the incubation experience, mostly related to the nonregular periodicity of mentoring sessions, training events provided by external entities, and issues while using services provided by external incubators’ partners. Several recommendations for enhancing the incubation experience, managerial implications, and opportunities for further research are discussed. Full article
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17 pages, 3191 KiB  
Article
Determination of Critical Factors for Success in Business Incubators and Startups in East Java
by Habiburrahman, Andjar Prasetyo, Tri Wedha Raharjo, Herrukmi Septa Rinawati, Trisnani, Bambang Riawan Eko, Wahyudiyono, Sekar Nur Wulandari, Mochammad Fahlevi, Mohammed Aljuaid and Petra Heidler
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114243 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
The reference to the success factors of incubators and startups in running their business so far has been ambiguous. The purpose of this study is to analyze the critical factors that can affect the success of incubators and startups. The quantitative research method [...] Read more.
The reference to the success factors of incubators and startups in running their business so far has been ambiguous. The purpose of this study is to analyze the critical factors that can affect the success of incubators and startups. The quantitative research method describes the research results. The study locus is in East Java Province, Indonesia with primary data from respondents in five regions: Banyuwangi, Jember, Madiun, Malang, and Surabaya. The number of respondents was 41 from incubators and 59 from startups with identification of domicile, type of business, and business turnover. Data was collected using surveys and interviews with 100 respondents. The analysis in this study uses eleven factors that are assumed to be factors of business success that have been tested with Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure (KMO), Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA), Bartlett’s test, and Cronbach Alpha. The critical point used for the KMO value is between 0.5 and 1, the MSA test critical point is 0.5, Bartlett’s test is less than the significance level (α = 0.05), and α cronbach ≥ 0.60. The analyzed factors are as follows: synergy products; processes; innovation management; communication; culture; experience; information technology; innovation skills; functional skills; and implementation skills. As a result, incubators and startups agree on eleven critical factors to building their business success, but there are differences in the priority scale between incubators and startups on these eleven factors. Full article
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26 pages, 6082 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Co-Movements among Oil Prices and Financial Assets: A Scientometric Analysis
by Nini Johana Marín-Rodríguez, Juan David González-Ruiz and Sergio Botero Botero
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12796; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912796 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
In this study, we examined the extant literature on the dynamic association between oil prices and financial assets with special emphasis on the methodologies for measuring the dependence among oil prices, exchange rates, stock prices, energy markets, and assets related to sustainable finance. [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the extant literature on the dynamic association between oil prices and financial assets with special emphasis on the methodologies for measuring the dependence among oil prices, exchange rates, stock prices, energy markets, and assets related to sustainable finance. We performed a scientometric review of the structure and global trends of the dynamic association among oil prices and financial assets, based on research from 1982 to 2022 (September) using techniques such as the analysis of (i) sources, (ii) authors, (iii) documents, and (iv) cluster analysis. A total of 746 bibliographic records from Scopus and Web of Science databases were analyzed to generate the study’s research data through scientometric networks. The findings indicate that the most promising areas for further research in this field are represented by co-movement, copula, wavelet, dynamic correlation, and volatility analysis. Furthermore, energy markets and assets related to sustainable finance emerge as crucial trends in investigating dynamic co-movements with oil prices. They also suggest a research gap in analyzing by means of machine learning, deep learning, big data, and artificial intelligence for measuring dynamic co-movements among oil prices and assets in financial and energy markets, especially in emerging countries. Thus, these methodologies can be implemented in further research because these methods could more robustly quantify the association among such variables. The analysis provides researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive understanding of the existing literature and research trends on the dynamic association among oil prices and financial assets. It also promotes further studies in this domain. The identification of these relations presents benefits in risk diversification, hedges, speculation, and inflation targeting. Full article
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21 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Capital Structure in Sustainable Infrastructure Systems: A Methodological Approach
by Juan David González-Ruiz, Sergio Botero-Botero and Alejandro Peña
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12662; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912662 - 05 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Many countries require financial mechanisms, leading to increasing coverage through sustainable infrastructure systems (SISs). However, establishing such mechanisms demands innovative approaches and analyses that contribute to the development of financial schemes by providing a new vision for private investors and public entities promoting [...] Read more.
Many countries require financial mechanisms, leading to increasing coverage through sustainable infrastructure systems (SISs). However, establishing such mechanisms demands innovative approaches and analyses that contribute to the development of financial schemes by providing a new vision for private investors and public entities promoting sustainable development and, therefore, the creation of new eco-financial assets. To address this need, this paper proposes a methodology for analyzing capital structure in sustainable infrastructure systems, which is validated in a case study. Thus, a mathematical model that identifies the impact on the final capital structure according to an investment plan and capital structures per period is developed. Additionally, this proposal integrates a financial framework that involves sustainable financing, capital markets, and public–private sectors. The results of the case study show that debt-service capacity was always higher than 1.0×. Hence, this study provides a better understanding of financing processes for SISs. Additionally, this contributes to the debate on infrastructure financing and its implications for main stakeholders. Full article
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16 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
What Enables Human Capital Investment Sharing in Elite Sport?
by Christopher M. McLeod, Hongxin Li and Calvin Nite
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10628; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710628 - 26 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Sport organizations increasingly cooperate to invest in elite athlete development, sometimes even across national boundaries and industry sectors. This study attempts to explain why organizations decide to cooperatively invest by extending human capital theory. A multiple case study of National Pro Fastpitch (NPF) [...] Read more.
Sport organizations increasingly cooperate to invest in elite athlete development, sometimes even across national boundaries and industry sectors. This study attempts to explain why organizations decide to cooperatively invest by extending human capital theory. A multiple case study of National Pro Fastpitch (NPF) and Kunlun Red Star Hockey Club (KRS) was conducted, including an analysis of 43 interviews and 305 documents. Organizations decided to invest cooperatively because they believed human capital sharing would allow for levels of investment that would otherwise be prohibitively expensive for individual organizations. Four enabling conditions explain when organizations perceive sharing as more effective than human capital “buying” or “making.” The findings extend human capital theory to explain sharing decisions. The cases and theory provide practical insights for managers investing in athlete development and expanding sports leagues. Full article
19 pages, 2072 KiB  
Article
Sustainable and Innovative Cross-Border Regional Development with Focus on Tourism in the Danube Basin—A Case-Study of Szigetköz and Csallóköz (Žitný Ostrov)
by Petra Kinga Kézai, Mihály Dömötör and Dávid Fekete
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7037; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127037 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
The current paper aims to analyze the Hungarian–Slovakian cross-border area (Szigetköz, Csallóköz) and unearth the region’s latent economic development potential. The study area with its unique natural environment has recently aroused the interest of many fields. Szigetköz is a fresh spot in the [...] Read more.
The current paper aims to analyze the Hungarian–Slovakian cross-border area (Szigetköz, Csallóköz) and unearth the region’s latent economic development potential. The study area with its unique natural environment has recently aroused the interest of many fields. Szigetköz is a fresh spot in the agglomeration of two large cities: Győr and Mosonmagyaróvár. What could be the economic bases and social factors that can awaken the area from its sleeping rose dream? Along with this issue, we explore socio-economic development opportunities. The exploratory research is based on content analysis of strategic documents and in-depth interviews with the settlement’s mayors. The results show that, although the overwhelming majority of settlements have a more moderate population loss and an abundance of economic opportunities relative to other Hungarian settlements, there are several gaps and negative processes that operate beneath the surface. Full article
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28 pages, 2411 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning to Improve the Sustainability of Agricultural Crops Affected by Phytosanitary Events: A Financial-Risk Approach
by Alejandro Pena, Juan C. Tejada, Juan David Gonzalez-Ruiz and Mario Gongora
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6668; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116668 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Given the challenges in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG), one of the sectors that have attracted the most attention in the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 (SDA-2030) is the agricultural sector. In this context, one of the crops that has had the most remarkable development [...] Read more.
Given the challenges in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG), one of the sectors that have attracted the most attention in the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 (SDA-2030) is the agricultural sector. In this context, one of the crops that has had the most remarkable development worldwide has been oil-palm cultivation, thanks to its high productive potential and being one of the most efficient sources of palmitic acid production. However, despite the significant presence of oil palm in the food sector, oil-palm crops have not been exempt from criticism, as its cultivation has developed mainly in areas of ecological conservation around the world. This criticism has been extended to other crops in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) due to insecticides and fertilisers required to treat phytosanitary events in the field. To reduce this problem, researchers have used unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to capture multi-spectral aerial images (MAIs) to assess fields’ plant vigour and detect phytosanitary events early using vegetation indices (VIs). However, detecting phytosanitary events in the early stages still suggests a technological challenge. Thus, to improve the environmental and financial sustainability of oil-palm crops, this paper proposes a hybrid deep-learning model (stacked–convolutional) for risk characterisation derived from a phytosanitary event, as suggested by lethal wilt (LW). For this purpose, the proposed model integrates a Lagrangian dispersion model of the backward-Gaussian-puff-tracking type into its convolutional structure, which allows describing the evolution of LW in the field for stages before a temporal reference scenario. The results show that the proposed model allowed the characterisation of the risk derived from a phytosanitary event, (PE) such as lethal wilt (LW), in the field, promoting improvement in agricultural environmental and financial sustainability activities through the integration of financial-risk concepts. This improved risk management will lead to lower projected losses due to a natural reduction in insecticides and fertilisers, allowing a balance between development and sustainability for this type of crop from the RSPO standards. Full article
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14 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Size on the Performance of Transnational Corporations Operating in the Textile Industry in Portugal during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Eleonora Santos and Rui Alexandre Castanho
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020717 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3697
Abstract
The aim of this work is to understand the impact of size on the performance of transnational corporations (TNCs) operating in the textile and clothing industry in Portugal during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, we used ORBIS data for the period 2019–2020 [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to understand the impact of size on the performance of transnational corporations (TNCs) operating in the textile and clothing industry in Portugal during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, we used ORBIS data for the period 2019–2020 and narrative, financial and correlation analyses to assess the performance of five companies. Thus far, the impact of company size on the competitiveness of Portuguese textile affiliates during the pandemic has remained unexplored. The results show that smaller firms performed better than larger ones, likely due to the higher fixed costs of the latter at times when orders declined worldwide. Our analysis suggests that there are some characteristics of TNCs that matter in explaining company-level performance during crises, such as management experience and flexibility. Furthermore, as Portugal is a major European textile exporter, it is useful for the host country to assess the economic sustainability of its foreign investors. The results provide some policy recommendations regarding the promotion of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Portugal. Full article
21 pages, 3027 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Literature Analysis of a Multi-Dimensional Sustainable Development Issue: Energy Poverty
by Recep Ulucak, Ramazan Sari, Seyfettin Erdogan and Rui Alexandre Castanho
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9780; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179780 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3689
Abstract
Energy plays a critical role in building a sustainable future—economically, socially, and environmentally. Energy poverty holds a similarly prominent position and covers certain economic, social and environmental issues that are underlined by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Due to its multidimensional role [...] Read more.
Energy plays a critical role in building a sustainable future—economically, socially, and environmentally. Energy poverty holds a similarly prominent position and covers certain economic, social and environmental issues that are underlined by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Due to its multidimensional role in plans for achieving sustainable development, there is a growing body of literature focusing on various aspects of energy poverty. This study conducts a bibliometric analysis of this literature by utilizing more extensive data from the Web of Science, covering all information on energy poverty studies. The analysis reveals how energy poverty has attracted attention over time, who the leading authors are, which studies constitute outstanding contributions to the literature, which different sides of the research topic stand out, and also highlights the potential research gaps. The results reveal all the network flows among researchers, publications, journals, keywords, organizations, co-cited publications, and bibliographic coupling for energy poverty studies. The findings confirm the increasing popularity of energy poverty as a topic and demonstrate the increasing awareness of the issue in academia over time. Full article
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15 pages, 2856 KiB  
Article
Do Public–Private Partnership Investment in Energy and Technological Innovation Matter for Environmental Sustainability in the East Asia and Pacific Region? An Application of a Frequency Domain Causality Test
by Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Sema Yılmaz Genç, Rui Alexandre Castanho and Dervis Kirikkaleli
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063039 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
Environmental sustainability is an important issue for current scholars and policymakers in the East Asian and Pacific region. The causal and long-run effects of technological innovation, public–private partnership investment in energy, and renewable energy consumption on environmental sustainability in the East Asian and [...] Read more.
Environmental sustainability is an important issue for current scholars and policymakers in the East Asian and Pacific region. The causal and long-run effects of technological innovation, public–private partnership investment in energy, and renewable energy consumption on environmental sustainability in the East Asian and Pacific regions have not been comprehensively explored while taking into account the role of economic growth using quarterly data for the period 1992–2015. Therefore, the present study aims to close this literature gap using econometric approaches, namely Bayer–Hanck cointegration, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL), dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS), and fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) tests. Furthermore, the study utilizes the frequency domain causality test to capture the causal impact of public–private partnership investment in energy, renewable energy consumption, technological innovation, and economic growth on CO2 emissions. The advantage of the frequency domain causality test is that it can capture the causality between short-term, medium-term, and long-term variables. The outcomes of the ARDL, FMOLS and DOLS show that renewable energy consumption and technological innovation mitigate CO2 emissions, while public–private partnership investment in energy and economic growth increase CO2 emissions. Moreover, the frequency causality test outcomes reveal that technological innovation, public–private partnership investment in energy, and renewable energy consumption cause CO2 emissions, particularly in the long-term. Thus, as a policy recommendation, the present study recommends promoting renewable energy consumption by focusing more on technological innovation in the East Asia and Pacific regions. Full article
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28 pages, 4901 KiB  
Article
Human Resources Training Needs in the Small and Medium Enterprises from Cross-Border Area Romania-Ukraine-Republic of Moldova
by Carmen Emilia Chașovschi, Carmen Nastase, Mihai Popescu, Adrian-Liviu Scutariu and Iulian-Alexandru Condratov
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042150 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
The research aim was to identify the training needs of entrepreneurs and employees within small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from the Suceava, Chernivtsi, and Bălți regions, to analyze the specific training practices in the cross-border area, and to identify the common features or [...] Read more.
The research aim was to identify the training needs of entrepreneurs and employees within small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from the Suceava, Chernivtsi, and Bălți regions, to analyze the specific training practices in the cross-border area, and to identify the common features or the disparities. The research contains an exploratory survey, based on a semi-structured questionnaire that investigates the training needs in the SMEs and specific training practices with a comparative approach. The results relate to the challenges faced by transformation economies and by the specificities of SMEs from these remote areas. Additionally, the research connects the factors involved in planning and delivering training programs for employees in SMEs in this EU peripheral area with the weaknesses of the companies in facing the market competitive economy. The results of the survey disclosed some common features and specificities related to training needs, training responsibilities, and interests in the SMEs from this cross-border area. The discussions are relevant for different categories of stakeholders, at the micro-level, for the management of the companies, but also on a larger scale, in planning the new development programs for the labor market in the targeted areas. Full article
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18 pages, 7046 KiB  
Article
Youth Labor Market Integration in European Regions
by Ruggero Cefalo, Rosario Scandurra and Yuri Kazepov
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3813; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093813 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4066
Abstract
Countries’ institutional configurations and structural characteristics play an important role in shaping transitions from school to work. Recent empirical evidence shows significant regional and territorial differences in youth unemployment and labor market participation. Along this research strand, we argue in favor of a [...] Read more.
Countries’ institutional configurations and structural characteristics play an important role in shaping transitions from school to work. Recent empirical evidence shows significant regional and territorial differences in youth unemployment and labor market participation. Along this research strand, we argue in favor of a place-sensitive approach to youth labor market integration in order to address the regional disparities of young people’s opportunities. In order to investigate the synergic effect of different contextual configurations, we construct a composite measure, namely, the youth labor market integration (YLMI) index. This considers a wide range of indicators of the access, exclusion, and duration of the transition into employment at the regional level. The YLMI index allows cross-regional and longitudinal comparisons of the European Union (EU) local labor markets and youth employment opportunities. Full article
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22 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
High-Growth Aspirations of Entrepreneurs in Latin America: Do Alliances Matter?
by Raquel Puente Castro, Jose U. Mora Mora and Fernando Pereira Laverde
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072867 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
This study considers how the formation and implementation strategies of a Latin America alliance between four of the best economic performance countries in the region have impacted the quality of entrepreneurship in these countries. To this end, we studied the Pacific Alliance (PA) [...] Read more.
This study considers how the formation and implementation strategies of a Latin America alliance between four of the best economic performance countries in the region have impacted the quality of entrepreneurship in these countries. To this end, we studied the Pacific Alliance (PA) and employed an ordered probit model with sample selection bias and statistical information from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) database for the 2012–2017 period. As a dependent variable, we used the growth aspiration of entrepreneurs as a proxy to measure the future growth of the company, from which a possible economic impact could be inferred. The evidence shows that during the implementation period of the PA, there is a positive impact on entrepreneur growth aspirations in member countries; the likelihood that entrepreneurs have high-growth aspirations is found to be greater during and after the implementation period than before the signing of the PA. Likewise, it was found that motivation, gender, education, skills, innovation (as perceived by the entrepreneur), export level, two pillars of the global competitiveness index (GCI), and the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate explain the growth aspirations of entrepreneurs in the member countries during the period under study. Full article
18 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Transforming Turkish Universities to Entrepreneurial Universities for Sustainability: From Strategy to Practice
by Sema Yılmaz Genç, Harun Sesen, Rui Alexandre Castanho, Dervis Kirikkaleli and Semih Soran
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041496 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
Today, universities are seen as the main actors of technological change, innovation, and social development; this situation causes new roles for universities, as well as forces them to change. At present, universities face very important expectations such as research and entrepreneurial activities by [...] Read more.
Today, universities are seen as the main actors of technological change, innovation, and social development; this situation causes new roles for universities, as well as forces them to change. At present, universities face very important expectations such as research and entrepreneurial activities by providing the industry–university cooperation along with education and training. In order to manage that transformation, it is seen that the universities across the world evolve to context of entrepreneurial university. Within this general framework, the main objective of this research is to determine where Turkish universities stand on the transformation of entrepreneurial university. In order to achieve this goal, 68 public universities’ strategic plans, which are thought to reflect the intentions for the future, were subjected to content analysis. The findings showed that the majority of universities in our country did not have entrepreneurial university features but they have strong intention and desire for a transformation in this direction. Full article
12 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Wavelet Coherence: Service Sector Index and Economic Growth in an Emerging Market
by Ayhan Orhan, Dervis Kirikkaleli and Fatih Ayhan
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236684 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4045
Abstract
The present study aims to shed some light on the causal link between the Service Sector Index in the Turkish stock market and economic growth using a wavelet coherence approach. Thus, the present study determines whether the Service Sector Index leads to economic [...] Read more.
The present study aims to shed some light on the causal link between the Service Sector Index in the Turkish stock market and economic growth using a wavelet coherence approach. Thus, the present study determines whether the Service Sector Index leads to economic growth in Turkey and/or vice versa. Based on our aim, we use the wavelet coherence approach, which allows us to capture long-run and short-run causal linkages between the Service Sector Index and economic growth in Turkey, since the approach combines both time domain causality and frequency domain causality tests. The findings from wavelet coherence reveal that there is one-way causality running from the Service Sector Index to economic growth in Turkey at different frequencies and different periods between 1997 and 2017. Full article
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19 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Government Size and Regional Capital Flows in China
by Hongyun Han and Shuang Lin
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6653; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236653 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Capital flows are key variables supporting the sustainability of economic growth. Based on a dataset of 31 provinces in China over 1997–2014, this paper utilizes the system generalized method of moments (System GMM) to investigate the determinants of capital flows and analyses the [...] Read more.
Capital flows are key variables supporting the sustainability of economic growth. Based on a dataset of 31 provinces in China over 1997–2014, this paper utilizes the system generalized method of moments (System GMM) to investigate the determinants of capital flows and analyses the impact of government size on capital flows. Preliminary results show that government size exerts a negative effect on capital inflows. Specifically, government spending on capital construction and administration crowds out capital inflows significantly, while government spending on science and technology crowds in capital inflows dramatically. In addition, high quality human capital, advanced financial development, and high-level trade openness are conducive to capital inflows. High tax and labor cost impede capital inflows. These results provide proof for China’s government to reduce the size of government spending appropriately and optimize its government expenditure structure for the purpose of crowding in capital inflows. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

21 pages, 2091 KiB  
Review
Towards a Unified Virtual Business Incubator Model: A Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis
by Roberto Vaz, João Vidal de Carvalho and Sandrina Francisca Teixeira
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13205; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013205 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Virtual business incubators have been highlighted for their positive impacts in fostering entrepreneurship and innovation in several business areas, contributing to sustainable economic growth and social development. However, despite their crucial roles, previous literature emphasizes that research concerning their business models has been [...] Read more.
Virtual business incubators have been highlighted for their positive impacts in fostering entrepreneurship and innovation in several business areas, contributing to sustainable economic growth and social development. However, despite their crucial roles, previous literature emphasizes that research concerning their business models has been largely ignored, and several important issues are still unaddressed. This article aims to contribute to filling this gap and advancing this field by providing the first bibliometric and systematic literature review, as far as the authors know, concerning virtual business incubator models. The main results reveal the following: that academic production is relatively new, fragmented, and develops under a diversity of research paths; the analyzed models (n = 12) have only some dimensions in common and are proposed based on three different perspectives (business organization and management, information and communication systems, and user experience); there is not a virtual business incubator model more suitable to support digital businesses or startups creation. Based on the results, it is argued that there is a need to further develop a model towards a unified virtual business incubator by actively involving different stakeholders during its design. This research can help managers, academics, and other professionals interested in running virtual business incubator programs. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

22 pages, 1238 KiB  
Systematic Review
Can the Rational Design of International Institutions Solve Cooperation Problems? Insights from a Systematic Literature Review
by Adela Toscano-Valle, Antonio Sianes, Francisco Santos-Carrillo and Luis A. Fernández-Portillo
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7866; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137866 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Global governance challenges highlight the role of international institutions as problem-solving structures. Institutional design is, more than ever, relevant in this context. The academic literature on this issue is characterized by the existence of consolidated debates such as that of rationalism vs. constructivism, [...] Read more.
Global governance challenges highlight the role of international institutions as problem-solving structures. Institutional design is, more than ever, relevant in this context. The academic literature on this issue is characterized by the existence of consolidated debates such as that of rationalism vs. constructivism, with a focus on making specific contributions to the rational design of international institutions. Koremenos, Lipson, and Snidal (2001) elaborated upon a series of cause-effect conjectures linking cooperation problems, considered independent variables, with institutional design features, considered dependent variables. This research aims to highlight the empirical evidence of the existing debate on this work by conducting a systematic review. Twenty-one quantitative research studies were collected through a screening and selection procedure and were subject to systematization. The findings showed asymmetric approaches to the rational design project, and agreements were the type of international institution that received the most attention from academia. Rationalism was supported by most of the body of literature. However, a broad subgroup of articles complemented this rational approach with other variables or schools of thought, such as those of constructivism and historical institutionalism. The results have relevance for the international institution design literature, as future avenues of potential research are underlined. Full article
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