Special Issue "Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Xiao Hu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Molecular & Cellular Biosciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA
Interests: polymer; biomaterials; biomacromolecules; regenerative medicine; drug delivery; nanotechnology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Further to the success of the Special Issue of PolymersThermal properties and applications of polymers”, we are delighted to reopen the Special Issue, now entitled “Thermal properties and applications of polymers II”.

Over the past decades, thermal analysis has become a key analytical and characterization tool in the field of materials sciences and analytical chemistry. Specific physical and chemical properties of synthetic polymers, nanomaterials, composite materials and biomaterials with different phases and morphology can be determined through thermal analysis. Traditional thermal analysis techniques include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), dynamic mechanic analysis (DMA), dielectric thermal analysis (DTEA), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and heat transfer analysis (such as thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity analysis). Some techniques such as DSC have been further developed into modulated-temperature DSC (MTDSC), pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC), micro/nano DSC, as well as fast-scan DSC (F-DSC). These various thermal methods characterize the mechanical properties, mass, temperature, heat and/or specific heat capacity changes in the thermodynamic and kinetic transitions of different materials, such as low molecular-mass substances, amorphous and semicrystalline synthetic polymers and also biopolymers. Moreover, thermal analysis can also help quantitatively monitor the structural changes of materials during heating, cooling and isothermal measurement. In this Special Issue, we will continue to highlight the recent accomplishments of thermal analysis on polymer-based materials, and illustrate new methods developed in the field. We hope these reviews and research studies can provide a broad view of how material thermodynamic theories and methods have been used in the last decade.

Prof. Dr. Xiao Hu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Thermal analysis
  • Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity
  • Glass transition, crystallization, melting

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Ablation Behavior of Silicone Rubber-Benzoxazine-Based Composites for Ultra-High Temperature Applications
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11111844 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
A novel type of silicon rubber composite with benzoxazine resins (BZs) and ZrO2 was prepared. The ablative response of the composites was investigated. The results showed that the composites with BZs had superior thermal stability and higher resides compared to the pristine [...] Read more.
A novel type of silicon rubber composite with benzoxazine resins (BZs) and ZrO2 was prepared. The ablative response of the composites was investigated. The results showed that the composites with BZs had superior thermal stability and higher resides compared to the pristine composites. The linear ablation rate of the composites decreased significantly with the increase in ZrO2 content. The maximum back-face temperature of the burnt samples was no more than 100 °C for the obtained composites. Three major ablation processes were carried out simultaneously during the ablation processing. These mainly involved the carbonization of the composite, and the formation of ceramic compounds such as SiC and ZrC, as well as the shielding effect of the ablated layer, which subsequently enhanced the ablation resistance of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of a Novel Fracturing Fluid System with Excellent Elasticity and Low Friction
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101539 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
The quaternary polymer was synthesized by radical polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR. The tests of critical associating concentration and SEM suggest that there is a multilayered and robust network structure in the polymer solution. An excellent elasticity in the polymer solution [...] Read more.
The quaternary polymer was synthesized by radical polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR. The tests of critical associating concentration and SEM suggest that there is a multilayered and robust network structure in the polymer solution. An excellent elasticity in the polymer solution by the first normal stress difference, viscoelasticity, and thixotropy was observed. The critical crosslinker concentration of polymer with sodium dodecyl sulfate and its interaction mechanism were investigated. According to the reaction kinetics, the supramolecular structure had the lowest activation energy, stable network structure, and greater thermal stability. Then the polymer was employed in the fracturing fluid due to its excellent elasticity using the intermolecular forces, which showed superior sand suspension capacity by dynamic sand suspension measurement. Meanwhile, a theoretical analysis was proposed as to why polymer solution has excellent suspension and drag reduction properties. Therefore, this polymer could be an alternative in many fields, especially in fracking, which is significant for the development of oil and gas resources in deep wells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Anticondensation Characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber Temperature-Control Coatings
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081282 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
Metal cabinets such as switch cabinets and ring network cabinets have the advantages of small footprints and good protection for equipment and offer neat and orderly protection. They are widely used in power systems. In a hot and humid environment, condensation can easily [...] Read more.
Metal cabinets such as switch cabinets and ring network cabinets have the advantages of small footprints and good protection for equipment and offer neat and orderly protection. They are widely used in power systems. In a hot and humid environment, condensation can easily cause equipment to age and even cause insulation failure. Therefore, research on reliable anticondensation methods is of great significance for the safe operation of power equipment. In this study, phase change capsules with phase transition temperatures of 22 and 32 °C were used as fillers and liquid silicone rubber was used as a matrix to prepare liquid silicone rubber composites filled with phase change capsules for a temperature-control coating. Studies have shown that liquid silicone rubber coatings containing phase change capsules can significantly enhance the anticondensation performance of metal cabinets. By using a temperature-control coating on the surface where the cabinet experiences condensation, the temperature difference between the surface and the dew point is reduced, thereby slowing down the condensation rate and even preventing condensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Thermal Evaluation of Novel Polyimide Protective Coatings for Quartz Capillary Chromatographic Columns Operated over 320 °C for High-Temperature Gas Chromatography Analysis
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11060946 - 01 Jun 2019
Abstract
Protection of intrinsically brittle quartz chromatographic columns (CCs) from breakage or property deterioration in gas chromatography (GC) analysis has become an important research topic regarding high-temperature GC techniques. Polyimide (PI) has proved to be the most suitable protective coating for quartz CCs. In [...] Read more.
Protection of intrinsically brittle quartz chromatographic columns (CCs) from breakage or property deterioration in gas chromatography (GC) analysis has become an important research topic regarding high-temperature GC techniques. Polyimide (PI) has proved to be the most suitable protective coating for quartz CCs. In the current research, a series of novel high-temperature-resistant PI coatings for quartz CCs operated over 320 °C have been successfully prepared. For this purpose, the aromatic diamine with a rigid skeleton structure 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-aminobenzimidazole (APBI) was copolymerized with two aromatic dianhydrides—3,3’,4,4’-benzophenotetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4’-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA)—and an aromatic diamine with flexible ether linkages—4,4’-oxydianiline (ODA)—by a two-step polymerization procedure via soluble poly(amic acid) (PAA) precursors, followed by thermal imidization at elevated temperatures. The developed PI coatings exhibited good comprehensive properties, including glass transition temperatures (Tg) as high as 346.9 °C, measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs) as low as 24.6 × 10−6/K in the range of 50–300 °C. In addition, the PI coatings exhibited good adhesion to the fused quartz capillary columns. No cracking, delamination, warpage, or other failures occurred during the 100-cycle thermal shock test in the range of 25–320 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Crosslinking Effect on Thermal Conductivity of Electrospun Poly(acrylic acid) Nanofibers
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050858 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
The thermal conductivity (k) of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanofibers, which were electrospun at various electrospinning voltages, was measured using suspended microdevices. While the thermal conductivities of the as-spun PAA nanofibers varied depending on the electrospinning voltages, the most pronounced 3.1-fold increase [...] Read more.
The thermal conductivity (k) of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanofibers, which were electrospun at various electrospinning voltages, was measured using suspended microdevices. While the thermal conductivities of the as-spun PAA nanofibers varied depending on the electrospinning voltages, the most pronounced 3.1-fold increase in thermal conductivity in comparison to that of bulk PAA was observed at the electrospinning voltage of 14 kV. On the other hand, a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the nanofibers was observed when the as-spun nanofibers were either thermally annealed at the glass transition temperature of PAA or thermally crosslinked. It is notable that the thermal conductivity of crosslinked PAA nanofibers was comparable to that of crosslinked bulk PAA. Polarized Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy verified that the k enhancement via electrospinning and the k reduction by the thermal treatments could be attributed to the conformational changes between gauche and trans states, which may be further related to the orientation of molecular chains. In contrast, hydrogen bonds did not contribute significantly to the k enhancement. Additionally, the suppression of k observed for the crosslinked PAA nanofibers might result from the shortening of single molecular chains via crosslinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Analysis of Crystallization and Phase Transition in Novel Polyethylene Glycol Grafted Butene-1 Copolymers
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050837 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Copolymerization is an effective strategy to regulate the molecular structure and tune crystalline structures. In this work, novel butene-1 copolymers with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafts (number-average molecular weight Mn = 750, 2000, and 4000 g/mol) were synthesized, for the first time [...] Read more.
Copolymerization is an effective strategy to regulate the molecular structure and tune crystalline structures. In this work, novel butene-1 copolymers with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafts (number-average molecular weight Mn = 750, 2000, and 4000 g/mol) were synthesized, for the first time introducing long-chain grafts to the polybutene-1 main chain. For these PEG-grafted copolymers, crystallization, melting, and phase transition behaviors were explored using differential scanning calorimetry. With respect to the linear homopolymer, the incorporation of a trimethylsilyl group decreases the cooling crystallization temperature (Tc), whereas the presence of the long PEG grafts unexpectedly elevates Tc. For isothermal crystallization, a critical temperature was found at 70 °C, below which all polyethylene glycol-grafted butene-1 (PB-PEG) copolymers have faster crystallization kinetics than polybutene-1 (PB). The subsequent melting process shows that for the identical crystallization temperature, generated PB-PEG crystallites always have lower melting temperatures than that of PB. Moreover, the II-I phase transition behavior of copolymers is also dependent on the length of PEG grafts. When form II, obtained from isothermal crystallization at 60 °C, was annealed at 25 °C, PB-PEG-750, with the shortest PEG grafts of Mn = 750 g/mol, could have the faster transition rate than PB. However, PB-PEG-750 exhibits a negative correlation between transition rate and crystallization temperature. Differently, in PB-PEG copolymers with PEG grafts Mn = 2000 and 4000 g/mol, transition rates rise with elevating crystallization temperature, which is similar with homopolymer PB. Therefore, the grafting of the PEG side chain provides the available method to tune phase transition without sacrificing crystallization capability in butene-1 copolymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of a Hydrophobic-Associating Polymer with Ultra-High Salt Resistance Using Synergistic Effect
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040626 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Polymer, SRP-2-1, was synthesized by micellar polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR. Salt tolerance and viscoelasticity tests verified that the salt resistance of SRP-2-1 was promoted by the synergistic effects of oxyethylene groups, sulfonate, and hydrophobic chains. It is suggested that the [...] Read more.
Polymer, SRP-2-1, was synthesized by micellar polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR. Salt tolerance and viscoelasticity tests verified that the salt resistance of SRP-2-1 was promoted by the synergistic effects of oxyethylene groups, sulfonate, and hydrophobic chains. It is suggested that the structure of SRP-2-1 became more compact with increasing salinity. Furthermore, a mechanism is proposed as to why SRP-2-1 solution has excellent salt-resistance properties. The experimental results indicate that, because of the good shear resistance properties, the polymer SRP-2-1 could be used as an alternative in many fields, for instance in fracturing fluids, enhanced oil recovery, and sewage treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
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