Special Issue "Filovirus: Replication, Disease Pathogenesis and Host Immune Responses"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020).
Interests: RNA viruses; filoviruses; virus–host interactions; innate immune responses; viral pathogenesis; infectious disease
The members of the filovirus family, such as Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus are highly pathogenic etiological agents associated with systemic and potentially fatal diseases. The unprecedented scale of the 2013–2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa resulted in over 28,000 confirmed cases, over 11,000 deaths, and was classified by WHO as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern [1,2]. Currently, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is experiencing their tenth EBOV outbreak, with the first reported case dating back to August 2018. The outbreak is in the northeast region of the DRC, which shares a border with Uganda and Sudan and has already accounted for over 2000 reported cases and 1500 deaths, making it the second-largest EBOV epidemic [3,4]. Similarly, Marburgviruses (MARV) has caused devastating outbreaks, albeit with lower case numbers. These situations demonstrate that these viruses are a serious threat to public health, highlighting the urgent need for effective treatments. Filovirus disease is characterized by systemic virus replication, innate immune suppression, and inflammatory responses detrimental to the host [5,6]. Damage to host tissues and organs following infection often result in hypotension, vascular leakage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all contributing to the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with ebolavirus outbreaks . Despite the tremendous advancement in development of vaccines and therapeutics against EBOV and MARV, a specific treatment has yet to be approved.
Major discoveries have elucidated the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of filoviruses; however, there remain unaddressed questions pertaining to the paradoxical host responses, including an insufficient understanding of how filoviruses access immune privileged sites and key host factors that contribute to virus pathogenesis. Reports on the innate immune evasion functions of interferon antagonists such as EBOV and MARV VP35, EBOV VP24, and MARV VP40 illustrate their role in disease severity . However, it is still unclear how these proteins suppress cellular immunity and the role of filovirus virus–host protein interactions in host adaptive immunity and pathogenesis. It is noteworthy that recent insights into virus–host interactions, viral pathogenesis, and host immune responses are leading to both the identification and development of additional countermeasures to combat virus infection. This Special Issue is devoted to expanding upon the current body of knowledge to highlight and identify new findings in these important areas. Timely contributions in the form of original research and review articles on filovirus replication, disease pathogenesis and protection, host immune modulations, and other related hot topics are hereby solicited for consideration of publication in this Special Issue.
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- Nguyen VK. An Epidemic of Suspicion - Ebola and Violence in the DRC. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(14):1298-9. Epub 2019/03/07. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1902682. PubMed PMID: 30840790.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30840790
- Nsio J, Kapetshi J, Makiala S, Raymond F, Tshapenda G, Boucher N, Corbeil J, Okitandjate A, Mbuyi G, Kiyele M, Mondonge V, Kikoo MJ, Van Herp M, Barboza P, Petrucci R, Benedetti G, Formenty P, Muyembe Muzinga B, Ilunga Kalenga O, Ahuka S, Fausther-Bovendo H, Ilunga BK, Kobinger GP, Muyembe JT. 2017 Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Northern Democratic Republic of Congo. J Infect Dis. 2019. Epub 2019/04/04. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz107. PubMed PMID: 30942884.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30942884
- Malvy D, McElroy AK, de Clerck H, Gunther S, van Griensven J. Ebola virus disease. Lancet. 2019;393(10174):936-48. Epub 2019/02/20. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33132-5. PubMed PMID: 30777297.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30777297
- Rougeron V, Feldmann H, Grard G, Becker S, Leroy EM. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever. J Clin Virol. 2015;64:111-9. Epub 2015/02/11. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.01.014. PubMed PMID: 25660265.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660265
- Reynard S, Journeaux A, Gloaguen E, Schaeffer J, Varet H, Pietrosemoli N, Mateo M, Baillet N, Laouenan C, Raoul H, Mullaert J, Baize S. Immune parameters and outcomes during Ebola virus disease. JCI Insight. 2019;4(1). Epub 2019/01/11. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.125106. PubMed PMID: 30626757; PMCID: PMC6485372.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30626757
- Messaoudi I, Amarasinghe GK, Basler CF. Filovirus pathogenesis and immune evasion: insights from Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13(11):663-76. Epub 2015/10/07. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3524. PubMed PMID: 26439085; PMCID: PMC5201123.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439085
Dr. Priya Luthra
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- Newly discovered filoviruses
- Filovirus replication mechanisms
- Filovirus disease pathogenesis
- Filovirus protein–host protein interactions
- Filovirus immune evasion
- Immunity to filoviruses
- Filovirus vaccine
- Antivirals against filovirus
- Animal models of filovirus disease