E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Shanon L. Casperson

Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS, 2402 2nd Ave. N., Stop 9034, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 701-795-8497
Interests: dietary protein; the role of dietary protein in metabolic health; energy metabolism; eating behaviors; skeletal muscle metabolism; macronutrients and food reinforcement; obesity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on beverages and ingestive behavior. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of beverage consumption and post-ingestive consequences. There continues to be much controversy surrounding the influence of beverage choice on health outcomes. Research investigating the impact of beverage choice has on human health and post-ingestive consequences continue to grow. We know from the growing body of literature that beverage choice has a substantial impact on metabolism, food reinforcement and eating behaviors. This Special Issue will provide an opportunity to publish a collection of new findings to help guide evidence-based decisions.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Short-term and long-term intervention trials and epidemiological studies investigating the role of beverages on food intake, eating behaviors and post-ingestive consequences.
  • Correlations between beverage consumption, diet quality and nutritional status.
  • Beverage consumption patterns and health outcomes
  • The timing of beverage consumption on post-ingestive consequences

I invite you to submit your latest research on beverage consumption and ingestive behavior to this Special Issue.

Dr. Shanon L. Casperson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Beverages
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages
  • Non-nutritive sweetened beverages
  • Diet beverages
  • Obesity
  • Eating behavior
  • Food reinforcement
  • Digestion
  • Added sugar
  • Metabolism
  • Body weight
  • Food intake
  • Human health

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Gastric Emptying and Dynamic In Vitro Digestion of Drinkable Yogurts: Effect of Viscosity and Composition
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091308
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
PDF Full-text (1862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Gastric emptying of food is mainly driven by the caloric concentration, the rheological properties of the chyme, and the physical state (liquid/solid) of food once in the stomach. The present work investigated: (1) The effect of the composition and the viscosity of drinkable
[...] Read more.
Gastric emptying of food is mainly driven by the caloric concentration, the rheological properties of the chyme, and the physical state (liquid/solid) of food once in the stomach. The present work investigated: (1) The effect of the composition and the viscosity of drinkable yogurts on gastric emptying in pigs, and (2) the behavior of yogurts during dynamic in vitro digestion. Three isocaloric liquid yogurts were manufactured: Two enriched in protein and fiber showing either a low (LV) or high (HV) viscosity, one control enriched in sugar and starch (CT). They were labelled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid and given to pigs (n = 11) to determine gastric emptying pattern by gamma scintigraphy. Then dynamic in vitro digestion of the yogurts was done using the parameters of gastric emptying determined in vivo. Gastric emptying half-times were significantly longer for LV than CT, whereas HV exhibited an intermediate behavior. In vitro gastric digestion showed a quick hydrolysis of caseins, whereas whey proteins were more resistant in the stomach particularly for LV and HV. During the intestinal phase, both whey proteins and caseins were almost fully hydrolyzed. Viscosity was shown to affect the behavior of yogurt in the small intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Dietary Cows’ Milk Protein A1 Beta-Casein Increases the Incidence of T1D in NOD Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091291
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The contribution of cows’ milk containing beta-casein protein A1 variant to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been controversial for decades. Despite epidemiological data demonstrating a relationship between A1 beta-casein consumption and T1D incidence, direct evidence is limited. We demonstrate that
[...] Read more.
The contribution of cows’ milk containing beta-casein protein A1 variant to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been controversial for decades. Despite epidemiological data demonstrating a relationship between A1 beta-casein consumption and T1D incidence, direct evidence is limited. We demonstrate that early life exposure to A1 beta-casein through the diet can modify progression to diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, with the effect apparent in later generations. Adult NOD mice from the F0 generation and all subsequent generations (F1 to F4) were fed either A1 or A2 beta-casein supplemented diets. Diabetes incidence in F0–F2 generations was similar in both cohorts of mice. However, diabetes incidence doubled in the F3 generation NOD mice fed an A1 beta-casein supplemented diet. In F4 NOD mice, subclinical insulitis and altered glucose handling was evident as early as 10 weeks of age in A1 fed mice only. A significant decrease in the proportion of non-conventional regulatory T cell subset defined as CD4+CD25FoxP3+ was evident in the F4 generation of A1 fed mice. This feeding intervention study demonstrates that dietary A1 beta-casein may affect glucose homeostasis and T1D progression, although this effect takes generations to manifest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Moderate Beer Intake and Cardiovascular Health in Overweight Individuals
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091237
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
PDF Full-text (847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Consistent epidemiological evidence indicates that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular event presentation, while high levels of alcohol intake are associated to increased cardiovascular risk. Little is known on the effects of moderate beer intake in the metabolic syndrome. The aim
[...] Read more.
Consistent epidemiological evidence indicates that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular event presentation, while high levels of alcohol intake are associated to increased cardiovascular risk. Little is known on the effects of moderate beer intake in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of moderate and regular daily intake of beer with meals in overweight (body mass index (BMI) of 28–29.9 kg/m2) or obese class 1 (BMI of 30–35 kg/m2) individuals without other cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidemia, type 2-diabetes, hypertension) focusing on the effects related to changes in weight, in lipoproteins and vascular endothelial function. We have performed an open, prospective two-arms longitudinal crossover study to investigate the effects associated with regular consumption (four week) of alcohol-free-beer (0 g alcohol/day) or traditional-beer (30 g alcohol/day in men and 15 g alcohol/day in women) on anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, liver and kidney function biomarkers, and vascular endothelial function. After four-week intervention with traditional and/or alcohol-free beer, BMI did not show any significant change and values for liver and kidney functions were within the normal levels. Moderate traditional beer intake did not affect lipid levels—however it significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, apoB-depleted serum (after the four-week intervention period) showed a higher potential to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Beer consumption did not induce vascular endothelial dysfunction or stiffness. In summary, our results based on a 12-week prospective study provide evidence that moderate intake of beer (traditional and alcohol-free) does not exert vascular detrimental effects nor increases body weight in obese healthy individuals. In contrast, moderate intake of beer increases the anti-oxidative properties of HDL and facilitates cholesterol efflux, which may prevent lipid deposition in the vessel wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle “Your Body Feels Better When You Drink Water”: Parent and School-Age Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Cognitions
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091232
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a leading source of added sugar in the American diet. Further, ingestion of added sugars from SSBs exceeds recommendations. Thus, interventions that effectively reduce SSB consumption are needed. Focus group discussions with parents (n = 37) and school-aged
[...] Read more.
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a leading source of added sugar in the American diet. Further, ingestion of added sugars from SSBs exceeds recommendations. Thus, interventions that effectively reduce SSB consumption are needed. Focus group discussions with parents (n = 37) and school-aged children between the ages of 6 and 11 years (n = 41) from Florida, New Jersey, and West Virginia were led by trained moderators using Social Cognitive Theory as a guide. Trends and themes that emerged from the content analysis of the focus group data indicated that both parents and children felt that limiting SSBs was important to health and weight control. However, parents and children reported consuming an average of 1.85 ± 2.38 SD and 2.13 ± 2.52 SD SSB servings/week, respectively. Parents and children were aware that parent behaviors influenced kids, but parents reported modeling healthy SSB behaviors was difficult. Busy schedules, including more frequent parties and events as children get older, were another barrier to limiting SSBs. Parents were most successful at limiting SSBs when they were not in the house. This qualitative research provides novel insights into parents’ and children’s cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes), barriers, and facilitators related to SSB ingestion. Consideration of these insights during nutrition intervention development has the potential to improve intervention effectiveness in reducing SSB intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Open AccessArticle Beverage Consumption among Adults in the Balearic Islands: Association with Total Water and Energy Intake
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091149
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper seeks to describe beverage consumption and examine the association between beverage consumption and total water intake and total energy intake of the adult population in the Balearic Islands. Beverage consumption, total water intake, and total energy intake were obtained by using
[...] Read more.
The paper seeks to describe beverage consumption and examine the association between beverage consumption and total water intake and total energy intake of the adult population in the Balearic Islands. Beverage consumption, total water intake, and total energy intake were obtained by using two 24-h diet recalls from a cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (n = 1386). The contribution of beverages to total water intake and total energy intake were also assessed. Beverages accounted for 65–71% of total water intake and 29–35% of it provided by drinking water. Food moisture contributed 31–37% of total water intake. The mean daily total water intake from all sources was around 2.2 L for men and 1.9 L for women and slightly lower than the proposed adequate intake (AI) recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The mean total energy intake was 2222 kcal/day and beverages contributed 10.3% of total energy intake for men and 9.5% for women. Energy intake from beverages varied with age. In both sexes, milk was the main beverage contributed to total energy intake. The energy contribution of caloric soft drinks was 1.8% for men and 1.2% for women and energy intake from these beverages was significantly higher among younger adults. Water was the main beverage in the diet, followed by milk and hot beverages. Beverages were mainly consumed in the main meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) in both sexes. The main findings of this study indicate that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (caloric soft drinks and commercial fruit juice) is higher among young adults, consumption of alcoholic beverages is higher among males aged 26 and older, and TWI (total water intake) is lower than the EFSA recommendations. These findings may be used to develop effective, healthy eating and drinking policies and campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Predicting Athletes’ Pre-Exercise Fluid Intake: A Theoretical Integration Approach
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050646
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pre-exercise fluid intake is an important healthy behavior for maintaining athletes’ sports performances and health. However, athletes’ behavioral adherence to fluid intake and its underlying psychological mechanisms have not been investigated. This prospective study aimed to use a health psychology model that integrates
[...] Read more.
Pre-exercise fluid intake is an important healthy behavior for maintaining athletes’ sports performances and health. However, athletes’ behavioral adherence to fluid intake and its underlying psychological mechanisms have not been investigated. This prospective study aimed to use a health psychology model that integrates the self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior for understanding pre-exercise fluid intake among athletes. Participants (n = 179) were athletes from college sport teams who completed surveys at two time points. Baseline (Time 1) assessment comprised psychological variables of the integrated model (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and fluid intake (i.e., behavior) was measured prospectively at one month (Time 2). Path analysis showed that the positive association between autonomous motivation and intention was mediated by subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Controlled motivation positively predicted the subjective norm. Intentions positively predicted pre-exercise fluid intake behavior. Overall, the pattern of results was generally consistent with the integrated model, and it was suggested that athletes’ pre-exercise fluid intake behaviors were associated with the motivational and social cognitive factors of the model. The research findings could be informative for coaches and sport scientists to promote athletes’ pre-exercise fluid intake behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Gain-Framed Messages Were Related to Higher Motivation Scores for Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Parenting Practices than Loss-Framed Messages
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050625
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parents play an important role in promoting healthy beverage intake among children. Message-framing approaches, where outcomes are described as positive (gain) or negative (loss) results, can be used to encourage parenting practices that promote healthy beverage intakes. This study tested the effectiveness of
[...] Read more.
Parents play an important role in promoting healthy beverage intake among children. Message-framing approaches, where outcomes are described as positive (gain) or negative (loss) results, can be used to encourage parenting practices that promote healthy beverage intakes. This study tested the effectiveness of message framing on motivation for parenting practices targeting reductions in child sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake (controlling availability, role modeling) and dispositional factors moderating effectiveness. Parents (n = 380) completed a survey to assess motivation after viewing gain- and loss-framed messages to engage in parenting practices, usual beverage intake, and home beverage availability. Paired t-tests were used to examine differences in motivation scores after viewing gain- vs. loss-framed messages for all parents and by subgroups according to low vs. high SSB intake and home availability, and weight status. Gain- versus loss-framed messages were related to higher motivation scores for both parenting practices for all parents (n = 380, p < 0.01) and most subgroups. No differences were observed by message frame for parents in low home SSB availability or normal and overweight BMI subgroups for controlling availability. Gain- versus loss-framed messages were related to higher motivation scores, therefore gain-framed messages are recommended for parent interventions intended to decrease child intake of SSBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Food Intake and Brain Responses to Food: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial in Healthy Humans
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050615
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Whether non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) consumption impacts food intake behavior in humans is still unclear. Discrepant sensory and metabolic signals are proposed to mislead brain regulatory centers, in turn promoting maladaptive food choices favoring weight gain. We aimed to assess whether ingestion of sucrose-
[...] Read more.
Whether non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) consumption impacts food intake behavior in humans is still unclear. Discrepant sensory and metabolic signals are proposed to mislead brain regulatory centers, in turn promoting maladaptive food choices favoring weight gain. We aimed to assess whether ingestion of sucrose- and NNS-sweetened drinks would differently alter brain responses to food viewing and food intake. Eighteen normal-weight men were studied in a fasted condition and after consumption of a standardized meal accompanied by either a NNS-sweetened (NNS), or a sucrose-sweetened (SUC) drink, or water (WAT). Their brain responses to visual food cues were assessed by means of electroencephalography (EEG) before and 45 min after meal ingestion. Four hours after meal ingestion, spontaneous food intake was monitored during an ad libitum buffet. With WAT, meal intake led to increased neural activity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the insula, areas linked to cognitive control and interoception. With SUC, neural activity in the insula increased as well, but decreased in temporal regions linked to food categorization, and remained unchanged in dorsal prefrontal areas. The latter modulations were associated with a significantly lower total energy intake at buffet (mean kcal ± SEM; 791 ± 62) as compared to WAT (942 ± 71) and NNS (917 ± 70). In contrast to WAT and SUC, NNS consumption did not impact activity in the insula, but led to increased neural activity in ventrolateral prefrontal regions linked to the inhibition of reward. Total energy intake at the buffet was not significantly different between WAT and NNS. Our findings highlight the differential impact of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on subsequent brain responses to visual food cues and energy intake. These variations may reflect an initial stage of adaptation to taste-calorie uncoupling, and could be indicative of longer-term consequences of repeated NNS consumption on food intake behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030374
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity.
[...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’) (n = 22) about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Plant-Based Beverages as Good Sources of Free and Glycosidic Plant Sterols
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010021
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To address the ever-growing group of health-conscious consumers, more and more nutritional and health claims are being used on food products. Nevertheless, only very few food constituents, including plant sterols, have been appointed an approved health claim (European Commission and Food and Drugs
[...] Read more.
To address the ever-growing group of health-conscious consumers, more and more nutritional and health claims are being used on food products. Nevertheless, only very few food constituents, including plant sterols, have been appointed an approved health claim (European Commission and Food and Drugs Administration). Plant sterols are part of those limited lists of approved compounds for their cholesterol-lowering properties but have been praised for their anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties as well. Despite this indisputable reputation, direct quantitative data is still lacking for naturally present (conjugated) plant sterols in beverages. This study aimed to fill this gap by applying a validated extraction and UPLC-MS/MS detection method to a diverse range of everyday plant-based beverages. β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside (BSSG) showed to be by far the most abundant sterol in all beverages studied, with concentrations up to 60–90 mg per 100 mL in plant-based milk alternatives and fresh fruit juices. Ergosterol (provitamin D2) could be found in beers (0.8–6.1 µg per 100 mL, from the yeast) and occasionally in juices (17–29 µg per 100 mL). Overall, the results demonstrated that the concentrations of water-soluble sterol conjugates have been underestimated significantly and that specific plant-based beverages can be good, low-fat sources of these plant sterols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Beverage Consumption Patterns among Overweight and Obese African American Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121344
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese
[...] Read more.
The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters) consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI). It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages) could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Back to Top