Selected Papers from the 6th International Symposium on Mining and Environmental Protection

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2017) | Viewed by 54022

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to inform you about the 6th International Symposium on Mining and Environmental Protection. The 6th International Symposium on Mining and Environmental Protection will be held in June 2017, in Vrdnik, Serbia, and is organized by the Center for Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade in Belgrade.

Previous conferences were very successful. Scientist and companies from many countries gathered to share experiences, information, and research results. The objective of this conference is to bring together engineers, scientists, and managers, working in the mining industry, research organizations, and government organizations, to work on the development and application of best practices in the mining industry with respect to environment protection.

The attendance of representatives from almost all Serbian mines is expected, as well as significant participation by professionals from mines, institutes, and universities from all over the world.

Official Website of the conference: www.rgf.bg.ac.rs/mep/.

Prof. Dr. Ivica Ristović
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Surface mining of mineral deposits
  • Underground mining of mineral deposits
  • The exploitation of oil, gas and technique of deep drilling
  • Environmental protection in mining
  • Sustainable development in the mining industry
  • Ecological aspects of exploitation and use of energy resources
  • Mine closure
  • Clean coal technologies
  • Clean Energy
  • BAT technologies in mining
  • Air pollution
  • Soil contamination, remediation and reclamation
  • Mining water and waste water management
  • Assessment of Environmental Impact
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Systems of Environmental Protection
  • Legislation in environmental protection
  • Public Health and Environment
  • Market emissions (ETS, carbon, GHG, SOx)
  • Natural Renewable Resources
  • Mining Geology
  • Biomass

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 26250 KiB  
Article
The Content of Toxic Metals in Agricultural Produce near a Coal Mine: Case Study KCB in Lazarevac, Serbia
by Ana Koprivica, Čedomir Beljić, Boris Vakanjac, Vesna Ristić Vakanjac and Marina Čokorilo Ilić
Minerals 2018, 8(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8040131 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3517
Abstract
The monitoring and analysis of concentrations of toxic metals (lead and cadmium) in soils and crops indicate that farmland in Serbia is generally not polluted, and the quality of soils is naturally good. Such soils are therefore suitable for organic farming. All noted [...] Read more.
The monitoring and analysis of concentrations of toxic metals (lead and cadmium) in soils and crops indicate that farmland in Serbia is generally not polluted, and the quality of soils is naturally good. Such soils are therefore suitable for organic farming. All noted instances of contamination by toxic metals are of a local nature only, and the result of fertilizers and pesticides, municipal waste, exhaust gases, nearby production facilities, smelting plants, mines, tailings ponds, etc. Locations of this type need to be monitored regularly, and the status of the soil and crops assessed. The results presented in this paper place special emphasis on lead and cadmium. In this regard, the sampling of 67 plant foodstuffs that are being grown in Baroševac village, located in the immediate vicinity of the Kolubara coal mine, was carried out. Fruit samples represented 14.9% and vegetable samples 85.1% of the total sample. The heavy metal content (lead/cadmium) in seven samples was above the limits prescribed by the Regulations. Overall exposure of the adult population of Baroševac, calculated on the basis of all samples (67 in total), was 0.89 µg lead per kg of body weight per week, representing only 3.5% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), and 0.46 cadmium per kg of body weight, which amounts to 6.7% PTWI. Both values point to the fact that the risk is low, even in the case of populations with high exposure to these toxic metals. This suggests that sustainable development may be possible in the near future. Full article
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19 pages, 5997 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of the Mineral Composition and Its Connection with Some Properties Important for the Sludge Flocculation Process-Examples from Omarska Mine
by Ljiljana Tankosić, Pavle Tančić, Svjetlana Sredić and Zoran Nedić
Minerals 2018, 8(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030119 - 20 Mar 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4977
Abstract
Studied sludge samples are composed of major goethite and quartz; less clay minerals; and minor magnetite, hematite, clinochlore and todorokite. They have quite similar qualitative, but different semi-quantitative compositions. There are similar particle size distributions between the samples, and the highest contents of [...] Read more.
Studied sludge samples are composed of major goethite and quartz; less clay minerals; and minor magnetite, hematite, clinochlore and todorokite. They have quite similar qualitative, but different semi-quantitative compositions. There are similar particle size distributions between the samples, and the highest contents of ~50% belongs to the finest classes of <6 μm. Among size classes within the samples, almost identical iron contents are present; indicating their similar mineral compositions, which make these systems very complex for further separation processes. Sludge II has a higher natural settling rate, due to its higher density and mineral composition. With addition of the flocculant, settling rates increase significantly with the increase of the liquid component in both of the samples. The effect of flocculant on the settling rate is different between samples, and depends on their mineral composition. The time of settling does not play a role in selectivity, to the ratio of the mass of floating and sinking parts, and iron content does not change with time. The content of iron partially increases by flocculation; therefore, this method should be considered as an appropriate one. Zeta potential values for sludge are mostly between those for goethite and quartz, indicating their particle mixture and intricately association. Full article
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13 pages, 7351 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Dynamic Surface Subsidence at the Underground Coal Mining Site in Velenje, Slovenia through Modified Sigmoidal Function
by Janez Rošer, Drago Potočnik and Milivoj Vulić
Minerals 2018, 8(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8020074 - 17 Feb 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4826
Abstract
In underground coal mining engineering, one of the most important tasks is to monitor, predict and manage the surface subsidence due to underground coal excavation. The impact of underground mining excavation reflects as subsidence of the overlying strata and the formation of surface [...] Read more.
In underground coal mining engineering, one of the most important tasks is to monitor, predict and manage the surface subsidence due to underground coal excavation. The impact of underground mining excavation reflects as subsidence of the overlying strata and the formation of surface depressions soon after excavation. The surface subsidence is one of many natural processes that exhibit a progression from small beginnings that accelerate and approach a climax over time. When detailed data is lacking, a logistic function is often used. In this paper, the analysis of the surface subsidence above underground mining sites in the Velenje Coal Mine by using a modified sigmoid function (surrogate of logistic function), with the common “S” shape, is introduced. Furthermore, the time estimation of the next and the final epoch measurement is considered. Full article
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13 pages, 1060 KiB  
Article
Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit
by Vladimir Malbasic and Lazar Stojanovic
Minerals 2018, 8(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8020071 - 16 Feb 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4276
Abstract
Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around [...] Read more.
Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting it is possible to define the allowed explosive quantities or minimum allowed distances in any area of the surface pit from the aspect of seismic safety. In the indicated case, and based on the analysis results, it is shown that in some areas of mining works in the case of the “Buvač”, Omarska open pit, projected explosive quantities cannot be used. In some cases, it is even necessary to divide the explosive charge in blasting holes with additional delayers. Full article
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18 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Models of Determining the Parameters of Rock Mass Oscillation Equation with Experimental and Mass Blastings
by Suzana Lutovac, Branko Gluščević, Rade Tokalić, Jelena Majstorović and Čedomir Beljić
Minerals 2018, 8(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8020070 - 16 Feb 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4023
Abstract
The explosion caused by detonation of explosive materials is followed by release of a large amount of energy. Whereby, a greater part of energy is used for rock destruction, and part of energy, in the form of seismic wave, is lost in the [...] Read more.
The explosion caused by detonation of explosive materials is followed by release of a large amount of energy. Whereby, a greater part of energy is used for rock destruction, and part of energy, in the form of seismic wave, is lost in the rock mass causing rock mass oscillation. Investigations of the character and behavior of the pattern of seismic wave indicate that the intensity and nature of the seismic wave are influenced by rock mass properties, and by blasting conditions. For evaluation and control of the seismic effect of blasting operations, the most commonly used equation is that of M.A. Sadovskii. Sadovskii’s equation defines the alteration in the velocity of rock mass oscillation depending on the distance, the quantity of explosives, blasting conditions and geological characteristics of the rock mass, and it is determined based on trial blasting for a specific work environment. Thus, this paper offers analysis of the method for determination of parameters of the rock mass oscillation equation, which are conditioned by rock mass properties and blasting conditions. Practical part of this paper includes the experimental research carried out at Majdanpek open pit, located in the northern part of eastern Serbia and the investigations carried out during mass blasting at Nepričava open pit, located in central Serbia. In this paper, parameters n and K from Sadovskii’s equation were determined in three ways—models in the given work environment. It was noted that, in practice, all three models can be successfully used to calculate the oscillation velocity of the rock masses. Full article
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16 pages, 1207 KiB  
Article
Research on Power Plant Ash Impact on the Quality of Soil in Kostolac and Gacko Coal Basins
by Dragana Savic, Dragana Nisic, Nenad Malic, Zlatko Dragosavljevic and Dragan Medenica
Minerals 2018, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8020054 - 8 Feb 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4564
Abstract
Increased concentrations of heavy metals in ash can adversely affect the microbiological and pedogenetic processes in soil. The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of ash from unburned coal generated in the Kostolac and Gacko coal basins on the quality [...] Read more.
Increased concentrations of heavy metals in ash can adversely affect the microbiological and pedogenetic processes in soil. The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of ash from unburned coal generated in the Kostolac and Gacko coal basins on the quality of soil in the surrounding environment. The investigation included the surface soil layer that was sampled and tested during 2016 and 2017. A total of 30 samples of Kostolac soil and 9 samples of Gacko soil were analyzed for the content of 8 heavy metals: Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Cr and Ni. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) technique according to the EPA 6020A method and the following conclusions were made: Kostolac coal ash affects the quality of the surrounding soil in terms of Ni, Cu and Cr as evidenced by the moderately strong correlation of the Ni-Cu pair (k = 0.71), as well as the Cu-Cr pair (k = 0.73) and strong correlation of the Ni-Cr pair (k = 0.82), while the high recorded concentration of Pb, Hg, As and Zn is attributed to other sources of pollution, such as the traffic network and intensive farming activities, and in some cases, its impact is only local. All recorded concentrations of heavy metals are within the remediation values. The effect of ash on soil contamination in the surroundings of the Gacko coal basin is limited to Ni and Cd, with a strong correlation coefficient of this pair (k = 0.82). The recorded overrun of maximum allowed concentration of Cr is evidenced in only 2 samples, and in terms of this element the contamination of the Gacko soil can be considered to be local. It is concluded that prevailing winds play a part in soil pollution. Cluster analysis showed that Ni, Cr and Zn have very similar values in analyzed soil samples from both basins, while a cluster composed of only Hg, in the case of Gacko, indicates lower contamination with Hg compared to the other heavy metals. Full article
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15 pages, 13356 KiB  
Article
Dust and Noise Environmental Impact Assessment and Control in Serbian Mining Practice
by Nikola Lilic, Aleksandar Cvjetic, Dinko Knezevic, Vladimir Milisavljevic and Uros Pantelic
Minerals 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8020034 - 23 Jan 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 9727
Abstract
This paper presents an approach to dust and noise environmental impact assessment and control in Serbian mine planning theory and practice. Mine planning defines the model of mining operations, production and processing rates, and ore excavation and dumping scheduling, including spatial positioning for [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach to dust and noise environmental impact assessment and control in Serbian mine planning theory and practice. Mine planning defines the model of mining operations, production and processing rates, and ore excavation and dumping scheduling, including spatial positioning for all these activities. The planning process then needs to assess the impact of these mining activities on environmental quality. This task can be successfully completed with contemporary models for assessment of suspended particles dispersion and noise propagation. In addition to that, this approach enables verification of the efficiency of suggested protection measures for reduction or elimination of identified impact. A case study of dust and noise management at the Bor copper mine is presented, including the analysis of the efficiency of planned protection measures from dust and noise, within long-term mine planning at the Veliki Krivelj and Cerovo open pits of the Bor copper mine. Full article
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16 pages, 5458 KiB  
Article
Natural and Modified Zeolite—Alginate Composites. Application for Removal of Heavy Metal Cations from Contaminated Water Solutions
by Milan Kragović, Snežana Pašalić, Marija Marković, Marija Petrović, Blagoje Nedeljković, Miloš Momčilović and Marija Stojmenović
Minerals 2018, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8010011 - 6 Jan 2018
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 6979
Abstract
In present paper, the influence of the initial pH and concentration of Pb2+ on its adsorption by the natural (NZA) and Fe(III)-modified zeolite-alginate beads (FeA) was studied. Results showed that modification of the starting materials have a positive effect on their adsorption [...] Read more.
In present paper, the influence of the initial pH and concentration of Pb2+ on its adsorption by the natural (NZA) and Fe(III)-modified zeolite-alginate beads (FeA) was studied. Results showed that modification of the starting materials have a positive effect on their adsorption capacities (102 and 136 mg/g for the NZA and FeA, respectively). After encapsulation, the mechanism of lead adsorption by both adsorbents was changed and ion exchange dominates. The best adsorption was achieved for initial pH > 3.8. Cation exchange capacity, structural properties, and hydrophobicity of samples were also determined, and the presence of the alginate has no significant influence on investigated properties of samples. Experiments on wastewater from tailings of lead and zinc mine Grot, Serbia, showed that after treatment with both adsorbents, the content of the most abundant heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Hg, and Mn) significantly decreased. Full article
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5524 KiB  
Article
Natural Radioactivity of Intrusive-Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks of the Balkan Mountain Range (Serbia, Stara Planina)
by Sanna Masod Abdulqader, Boris Vakanjac, Jovan Kovačević, Zorana Naunovic and Nevena Zdjelarević
Minerals 2018, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8010006 - 29 Dec 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6265
Abstract
Stara Planina (also known as the Balkan mountain range) is known for numerous occurrences and deposits of uranium and associated radionuclides. It is also famous for its geodiversity. The geologic framework is highly complex. The mountain is situated between the latitudes of 43° [...] Read more.
Stara Planina (also known as the Balkan mountain range) is known for numerous occurrences and deposits of uranium and associated radionuclides. It is also famous for its geodiversity. The geologic framework is highly complex. The mountain is situated between the latitudes of 43° and 44° N and the longitudes from 22°16′ to 23°00′ E. Uranium exploration and radioactivity testing on Stara Planina began back in 1948. Uranium has also been mined in the zone of Kalna, within the Janja granite intrusive. The naturally radioactive geologic units of Stara Planina are presented in detail in this paper. The main sources of radioactivity on Stara Planina can be classified as: 1. Granitic endogenous—syngenetic–epigenetic deposits and occurrences; 2. Metamorphogenic—syngenetic; and 3. Sedimentary, including occurrences of uranium deposition and fluctuation caused by water in different types of sedimentary rocks formed in a continental setting, which could be classified under epigenetic types. The area of Stara Planina with increased radioactivity (higher than 200 cps), measured by airborne gamma spectrometry, is about 380 square kilometers. The highest values of measured radioactivity and uranium grade were obtained from a sample taken from the Mezdreja uranium mine tailing dump, where 226Ra measures 2600 ± 100 Bq/kg and the uranium grade is from 76.54 to 77.65 ppm U. The highest uranium (and lead) concentration, among all samples, is measured in graphitic schist with high concentrations of organic (graphitic) material from the Inovska Series—99.47 ppm U and 107.69 ppm Pb. Thorium related radioactivity is the highest in granite samples from the Janja granite in the vicinity of the Mezdreja granite mine and the Gabrovnica granite mine tailing dump, and it is the same—250 ± 10 Bq/kg for 232Th, while the thorium grade varies from 30.82 to 60.27 ppm Th. In gray siltstones with a small amount of organic material, the highest radioactivity is related to potassium—2080 ± 90 Bq/kg for 40K. Full article
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17360 KiB  
Article
Impact of Coalbed Incidence Angle on Methane Enrichment Zone in Longwall Gob
by Shengyong Hu, Ao Zhang, Guorui Feng, Shuwen Guan, Xiangqian Guo, Chao Li and Guang Xu
Minerals 2017, 7(9), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7090166 - 11 Sep 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3722
Abstract
To control methane emissions in gob into longwall working faces, it is necessary to understand the distributions of methane enrichment zones (MEZ) around mined coal seams with different incidence angles. In this paper, FLAC3D software is used to calculate the three-dimensional stress [...] Read more.
To control methane emissions in gob into longwall working faces, it is necessary to understand the distributions of methane enrichment zones (MEZ) around mined coal seams with different incidence angles. In this paper, FLAC3D software is used to calculate the three-dimensional stress distributions in MEZ in gobs with coalbed incidence angles ranging from 0° to 50°. The results show that MEZ consistently exhibit a “hexagon” shape, and rotate in a clockwise direction as the coalbed angle increases. The MEZ range above the mined seam is larger than that below the mined seam. As the coalbed angle increases, the MEZ range in the roof decreases, while the MEZ range in the floor increases. The MEZ height increases significantly as the coalbed angle increases. The MEZ widths in coal pillars of gobs increase slightly as the coalbed angle increases. The methane concentration increases exponentially as the height in the MEZ increases. The surface borehole bottoms located relatively higher in the MEZ can drain methane with a higher concentration and flow rate, as verified by a field test in the Pansan mine, China. Full article
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