Cadastre and Land Management in Support of Sustainable Real Estate Markets

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2023) | Viewed by 27850

Special Issue Editors

School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
Interests: land management; land administration; cadaster; crowdsourcing; land use planning; property valuation; property markets; informal settlements; spatial information management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sound land administration, efficient land management, and sustainable real estate markets are vital for good governance and are indispensable for economic, social, and environmental development. The way that people live and work is dramatically impacted by megatrends and disruptive technological developments such as cloud services, distributing network systems, AI, and machine learning. Major global challenges such as urbanization, cybersecurity and digital ethics, repetitive financial crises, and natural and man-made disasters, like the recent pandemic, also have a dramatic impact on peoples’ lives. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic is anticipated to slow the recent efforts toward the reduction of global poverty.

Technical, fiscal, administrative, legal, and policy issues related to land administration and land management have been changing and improving in response to the UN Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. However, although there is a broad recognition that a stable and transparent land policy framework for tenure security and development of efficient and inclusive land administration systems is essential for sustainable prosperity for everyone, different countries follow differing strategies in the management of land and real estate. This often leads to uncertain results or countries failing to meet their goals.

In this Issue, in an effort to share best practices for solutions and risk-mitigation measures, and to improve awareness and preparedness for future disruptive changes, we invite papers focusing on the following:

  1. Modern trends in designing and building efficient land administration systems that provide secure tenure for all and support the development of sustainable real estate markets
  2. Good practice, common challenges, and opportunities in the management of land.

The focus of the papers may be on—but are not limited to—the following themes:

  • Policy and strategy development processes in land administration and land management at a governmental level in order to meet current and future user needs and challenges, standardization in the recordation of land and property, fit-for-purpose (FFPLA) land administration, formalization of informal constructions, digitalization and urban land administration (ULA), disaster management, etc.
  • Technical issues and challenges in cadaster and land management; cadastral data collection, validation, and dissemination, as well as novel solutions for typical problems (initial data collection, crowdsourcing/VGI, LADM, distributing network systems, blockchain, machine learning, AI-based services, quality improvement, data integration, user access, open data and platform economy, etc.)
  • Extending the scope of cadaster with 3D, 4D, BIM, indoor cadaster, public law restrictions, tenure security for all, legal issues such as the digital trust and ethical issues, PPPs and the role of private sector, land valuation, dealing with unregistered buildings and land, etc.
  • Connection to other disciplines—spatial planning; history; sociology; formalizing, registering, upgrading informal settlements; property valuation and taxation; housing; land use planning and development permitting, etc.

Prof. Dr. Chryssy Potsiou
Dr. Gerhard Navratil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Crowdsourcing and VGI
  • AI, machine learning
  • 3D, 4D cadasters, BIM, and ULA
  • Distributing network systems
  • Platform land administration
  • Legal and ethical issues
  • Open cadaster
  • Standards
  • Land management
  • Informal settlements
  • Housing
  • Tenure security

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Development of a Methodology and Model for Land Administration Data Dissemination Processes
Land 2023, 12(3), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030711 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Land administration (LA) is concerned with processes. Simply put, LA cannot be understood, built, or improved unless the processes associated with it are understood. When it comes to the processes involved in LA, two general processes can be identified, namely registration and dissemination. [...] Read more.
Land administration (LA) is concerned with processes. Simply put, LA cannot be understood, built, or improved unless the processes associated with it are understood. When it comes to the processes involved in LA, two general processes can be identified, namely registration and dissemination. Nowadays, processes are implemented electronically; however, paper-based thinking is still present, and the performance of processes is impeded by siloed data management. These issues could be addressed through the employment of standards such as the Land Administration Domain Model. Processes are not yet part of the standard, but their inclusion in future extensions is planned. Moreover, a literature analysis indicated that there is no standardized methodology or model available for describing LA processes. Consequently, we modeled one part of land administration processes, namely data dissemination, by developing a methodology and model to describe it. The methodology was developed with the goal of providing guidelines for other researchers when modeling use cases of data dissemination processes by enabling comparisons of models, searching for best practices, and developing standardized process models. Additionally, the methodology was tested on a conceptual use case to prove its viability. Furthermore, a model based on conceptual modeling and an activity-centric process modeling approach was developed and linked to existing classes of the Land Administration Domain Model. The organizational and technological challenges which might arise when improving data dissemination processes are discussed, and possible outcomes of the developed methodology and model are provided. Full article
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21 pages, 5643 KiB  
Article
A Prototype Machine Learning Tool Aiming to Support 3D Crowdsourced Cadastral Surveying of Self-Made Cities
Land 2023, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12010008 - 20 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Land administration and management systems (LAMSs) have already made progress in the field of 3D Cadastre and the visualization of complex urban properties to support property markets and provide geospatial information for the sustainable management of smart cities. However, in less developed economies, [...] Read more.
Land administration and management systems (LAMSs) have already made progress in the field of 3D Cadastre and the visualization of complex urban properties to support property markets and provide geospatial information for the sustainable management of smart cities. However, in less developed economies, with informally developed urban areas—the so-called self-made cities—the 2D LAMSs are left behind. Usually, they are less effective and mainly incomplete since a large number of informal constructions remain unregistered. This paper presents the latest results of an innovative on-going research aiming to structure, test and propose a low-cost but reliable enough methodology to support the simultaneous and fast implementation of both 2D land parcel and 3D property unit registration of informal, multi-story and unregistered constructions. An Indoor Positioning System (IPS) built upon low-cost Bluetooth technology combined with an innovative machine learning algorithm and connected with a 3D LADM-based cadastral mapping mobile application are the two key components of the technical solution under investigation. The proposed solution is tested for the first floor of a multi-room office building. The main conclusions concern the potential, usability and reliability of the method. Full article
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19 pages, 6519 KiB  
Article
Inconsistencies in Cadastral Boundary Data—Digitisation and Maintenance
Land 2022, 11(12), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122318 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Most cadastral systems today are coordinate-based and contain only a weak or no reference to measurements or the origin of the information. In some contexts, this is largely due to the transition of land data management and maintenance from an analogue to a [...] Read more.
Most cadastral systems today are coordinate-based and contain only a weak or no reference to measurements or the origin of the information. In some contexts, this is largely due to the transition of land data management and maintenance from an analogue to a digital environment. This study focuses on analysing the importance of the measurement-based cadastre and the digitisation process in North Macedonia and Slovenia. The survey-based boundary data and their integration into the digital environment were not considered in either case study. The positional differences between the survey-based boundary coordinates and the graphical coordinates of the boundaries are significant. The RMSE(2D) for Trebosh was 48 cm, and the RMSE(2D) for Ivanjševci was 56 cm. Consequently, the differences in location affected the areas of the cadastral parcels, resulting in an RMSE of 26 m2 and 23 m2 for Trebosh and Ivanjševci, respectively. These differences can be considered as differences within the cadastral boundary data. Therefore, before harmonising the data between the cadastre and the land register, the inconsistencies within the cadastral data should be eliminated first. The differences in the location of cadastral boundaries and parcel area create new challenges in cadastral procedures (formatting of parcels), conflicts in the relocation of boundaries, and impacts on the land market. The solution lies in the way data is maintained, avoiding duplication of attributes or eliminating inconsistencies (after duplication). Both solutions require further modifications of the legal framework for cadastral procedures related to boundary adjustments and data compliance. This study provides a basis for evaluating inconsistencies in cadastral data and highlights the importance of proper source data selection in the digitization process. Full article
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15 pages, 2900 KiB  
Article
Cadastre Typology as a Baseline for Incremental Improvement of Spatial Cadastre in Jakarta: Towards a Complete Cadastre
Land 2022, 11(10), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101732 - 06 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Improving the quality of spatial cadastre remains a challenge in Indonesia. The lack of data quality impacts the legal uncertainty of land rights and the inequality of control, ownership, use, and utilization of land. This study discusses the efforts that can be made [...] Read more.
Improving the quality of spatial cadastre remains a challenge in Indonesia. The lack of data quality impacts the legal uncertainty of land rights and the inequality of control, ownership, use, and utilization of land. This study discusses the efforts that can be made to achieve an accurate, assured, and authoritative spatial cadastre by referring to cadastral regulations in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. This research focuses on three spatial elements: boundary determination survey, measurement methods, and base map accuracy in order to assess systematic and sporadic registration activities previously conducted in two sub-districts in North Jakarta. The areas are located in a compacted urban area that consists of 19,173 land parcels as a research sample. A multivariate clustering tool is used to analyze the grouping of land parcels into a cadastral typology (comply/not comply). This study indicates that the level of compliance of the land parcel maps against three spatial elements are the following: (1) the compliance to boundary determination survey by 100%; (2) the compliance to measurement method by 17.36%; and (3) the compliance to base map accuracy by 0%. This paper explains how the cadastre typology can be used as an indicator of compliance as well as a baseline to improve the quality of spatial data. Full article
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23 pages, 24932 KiB  
Article
How to Improve Quality of Crowdsourced Cadastral Surveys
Land 2022, 11(10), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101642 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1829
Abstract
The potential for introducing voluntary citizen participation, combined with mobile services, for cadastral data collection for a systematic first registration has been thoroughly investigated and even implemented in some official projects. This data collection procedure can technically be ac-complished safely, but results have [...] Read more.
The potential for introducing voluntary citizen participation, combined with mobile services, for cadastral data collection for a systematic first registration has been thoroughly investigated and even implemented in some official projects. This data collection procedure can technically be ac-complished safely, but results have shown that many participants have difficulty in identifying the land parcels (location, shape and size) on the base-map (orthophoto, air-photo, etc.) correctly. Either they have to ask the assistance of a private professional, or there is a high risk that a number of errors may appear in the submitted crowdsourced data. This paper investigates how to improve the quality of such crowdsourced cadastral data, by adding to the base-map any available and relevant geospatial and descriptive information that may help the participants to correctly identify their land parcel. In particular, the research investigates and suggests (a) which types of available geospatial information should be added to the base-map and by whom (professionals or a group of trained volunteers), and (b) the necessary quality controls that must be made in the compilation of the advanced crowdsourced base-map—a case study follows to assess the suggested proposal. In addition, this paper provides an updated version of the crowdsourced methodology for cadastral surveys as modelled by the authors in an earlier stage of their research. This updated version briefly includes all quality controls needed to ensure the quality of a modern cadastre that the authors will further investigate in a subsequent stage. Full article
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24 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Too Much, Too Soon? The Changes in Greece’s Land Administration Organizations during the Economic Crisis Period 2009 to 2018
Land 2022, 11(9), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091564 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Land administration is the managing of spatial and legal data pertaining to land. Land administration organizations provide services for land ownership and are essential to a well-functioning land administration system to secure land and property rights for all and support real estate markets. [...] Read more.
Land administration is the managing of spatial and legal data pertaining to land. Land administration organizations provide services for land ownership and are essential to a well-functioning land administration system to secure land and property rights for all and support real estate markets. This article reviews the case of the Hellenic Land Administration Reform and the associated changes in the land administration organizations during the economic crisis period (2009–2018). We qualitatively analyze these changes and their actual effects through a set of legislative initiatives according to the orders of change of the enactive theory of reforms and the concept of isomorphism. The study is informed by interviews with key informants involved in the land administration policy domain, and by secondary data, such as legislative documents and reports. Findings show that the legislative initiatives aimed to bring efficiency, transparency, and rationalization to the land administration policy domain by centralizing the collection of land transaction fees and nationalizing the land administration organizations., The enacted legislative initiatives encompassed organizational (second-order) changes within a short period, instead of incremental technical or managerial measures (first-order) to improve ineffective practices and services for citizens. They ended with a drastic organizational transformation, resulting in “premature load bearing” in the involved organizations, which complexified the implementation of an ambitious land administration reform and impacted the smooth operation of the real estate market. The article increases the current insight on the merger of land administration organizations and its implications. It contributes to the land administration scholarly literature on the establishment of new organizations to create a modern cadastral system from a public policy perspective through the orders of change of the enactive theory of reforms. Full article
18 pages, 4696 KiB  
Article
Spatial Coupling Coordination Evaluation between Population Growth, Land Use and Housing Supply of Urban Agglomeration in China
Land 2022, 11(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091396 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The spatial imbalance between population growth, land use and housing supply is the central issue for regional coordination of urban agglomeration in China. Based on the panel data of 172 cities in 11 urban agglomerations from 2014 to 2017, this study uses the [...] Read more.
The spatial imbalance between population growth, land use and housing supply is the central issue for regional coordination of urban agglomeration in China. Based on the panel data of 172 cities in 11 urban agglomerations from 2014 to 2017, this study uses the information entropy method and the spatial coupling coordination degree model to evaluate the quantitative interaction and spatial correlations between population growth, land use and housing supply. There are three key findings: (1) the main variation value of indicators has evolved from the quantity of housing supply to the quality of population growth, improving the quality of population growth has been the key factor to break the insufficient balance of indicators; (2) the coupling degree is high but the coordination degree is obviously low, the aggregation level of coupling coordination degree is generally middle, and there is obviously spatial polarization—improving the degree of coordination is the key point to break the inadequate balance of cities; (3) the coupling coordination degree is irregularly distributed in 11 urban agglomerations, the spatial correlation of coupling coordination degree is generally weak, improving the spatial coordination degree of urban agglomeration will contribute to improving the balanced sufficiency level, and the spatial coupling coordination degree is also expected to increase. This study presents a new perspective for exploring spatial coordination between population growth, land use and housing supply, which proposes a new approach to investigate quantitative interaction and spatial correlation of urban agglomeration in China. Full article
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16 pages, 720 KiB  
Article
Who Owns the City, and Why Should We Care?
Land 2022, 11(4), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040459 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2180
Abstract
Who owns the city, and why is it important to know? The city constantly makes decisions that affect municipal residents regarding municipal services, land use, and financing. The cost is often linked directly to the municipal residents, but the benefits of some decisions [...] Read more.
Who owns the city, and why is it important to know? The city constantly makes decisions that affect municipal residents regarding municipal services, land use, and financing. The cost is often linked directly to the municipal residents, but the benefits of some decisions directly affect the property owners and only indirectly affect the municipal residents. On the other hand, the property owners can be residents in the city or the country, but they can also be foreign property owners. Therefore, the distribution of costs will differ from the distribution of benefits. The study aims to investigate and analyse real estate owners in some focus areas in the Stockholm municipality in terms of nationality, patterns of real estate usage, area of properties, and the nature of ownership. Full article
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19 pages, 9174 KiB  
Article
Underground Land Administration from 2D to 3D: Critical Challenges and Future Research Directions
Land 2021, 10(10), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10101101 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3940
Abstract
The development and use of underground space is a necessity for most cities in response to rapid urbanisation. Effective underground land administration is critical for sustainable urban development. From a land administration perspective, the ownership extent of underground assets is essential for planning [...] Read more.
The development and use of underground space is a necessity for most cities in response to rapid urbanisation. Effective underground land administration is critical for sustainable urban development. From a land administration perspective, the ownership extent of underground assets is essential for planning and managing underground areas. In some jurisdictions, physical structures (e.g., walls, ceilings, and utilities) are also necessary to delineate the ownership extent of underground assets. The current practice of underground land administration focuses on the ownership of underground space and mostly relies on 2D survey plans. This inefficient and fragmented 2D-based underground data management and communication results in several issues including boundary disputes, underground strikes, delays and disruptions in projects, economic losses, and urban planning issues. This study provides a review of underground land administration from three common aspects: legal, institutional, and technical. A range of important challenges have been identified based on the current research and practice. To address these challenges, the authors of this study propose a new framework for 3D underground land administration. The proposed framework outlines the future research directions to upgrade underground land administration using integrated 3D digital approaches. Full article
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23 pages, 4088 KiB  
Article
The Cadastre as a Source for the Analysis of Urbanization Dynamics. Applications in Urban Areas of Medium-Sized Inland Spanish Cities
Land 2021, 10(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10040374 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3614
Abstract
This article presents a methodological proposal using the cadastre as a tool to analyze urbanization dynamics. It is backed by an in-depth review of the related literature concerning Spain and Mediterranean Europe. The work uses the cadastre as a source of information, specifically [...] Read more.
This article presents a methodological proposal using the cadastre as a tool to analyze urbanization dynamics. It is backed by an in-depth review of the related literature concerning Spain and Mediterranean Europe. The work uses the cadastre as a source of information, specifically leveraging the urban parcels and real estate obtained from the CAT files. After the data were collected, interpreted and organized, complementary statistical and cartographic methodologies and tools were used, together with the required database management. The goal of the study was to analyze the behavior of five intermediate cities and their urban areas, with the aim of comparing the construction dynamics between the cities and the municipalities located in their respective areas of influence in the period 2000–2016. The work is framed within the debate on urban sprawl, sustainability and the need for tools for town and regional planning. The main conclusion of the work reflects the necessity of a better understanding of the processes of transformation in cities, in which the use of cadastral data is key, given its reliability and updated information, despite the difficulty involved in accessing the data structure. Full article
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20 pages, 7015 KiB  
Article
An Approach to Resolve Inconsistencies of Data in the Cadastre
Land 2021, 10(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010070 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
A cadastre, as one of the key registers of land administration, must be maintained to provide up-to-date land information. Before digitization, technical and alphanumerical datasets were maintained separately, leading to redundant data. This resulted in numerous inconsistencies between the cadastral map and the [...] Read more.
A cadastre, as one of the key registers of land administration, must be maintained to provide up-to-date land information. Before digitization, technical and alphanumerical datasets were maintained separately, leading to redundant data. This resulted in numerous inconsistencies between the cadastral map and the register, leading to the loss of integrity of these authoritative data. The fact that the cadastral map and the register are in the electronic form today does not guarantee their integrity and quality. The aim of this research was to develop a methodology for analyzing and resolving the inconsistencies between a cadastral map and a register, which were indicated by the differences found in the quality controls in cadastral map vectorization projects. A detailed analysis of the differences between the cadastral map and the register data resulted with systematization of causes and the sources of errors, which then led to the inconsistencies between the two cadastral datasets. The cadastral datasets required for such an analysis were scanned and georeferenced cadastral map sheets, vectorized cadastral map, and vectorization reports. The proposed methodology was tested on three cadastral municipalities in Croatia, namely Dol, Postira, and Stobreč. A detailed analysis of each individual inconsistency showed that the inconsistencies were caused not only by the maintenance errors but also by other processes that affected the cadastral datasets throughout their lifetime. Full article
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