Special Issue "Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Stomatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 8326

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Rosalia Maria Leonardi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: digital dentistry; imaging; orthodontics; TMJ disorders; oral pathology; oral cancer; orofacial pain; craniofacial growth; oral health; general health; quality of life
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuous research and updates in medical technology are irreversibly changing the approach of dentists to the diagnosis, treatment plan strategies, and decision-making processes. With the new available technologies and equipment, it is now easier to reach a comprehensive approach to rehabilitative planning involving different dental specialists as well as improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the treatment, optimize the patient experience, and streamline operations in dental practice.

This Special Issue aims to update the current clinical approaches with new innovative advances and knowledge in the field of dentistry. Potential topics in this Special Issue include but are not limited to in vivo and in vitro studies involving innovative technologies and materials, such as digital equipment, CAD-CAM systems, robot dentists, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics, natural dental products, custom implant using threedimensional printing (3DP), high-tech radiology, and new techniques and materials for functional and aesthetic facial and dental rehabilitations.

We especially welcome interventional studies aiming at improving the knowledge of new techniques/advances in clinical dentistry. Studies incorporating new clinical approaches or providing novel information are of higher priority. Reviews including studies using conceptual frameworks on any of the aforementioned topics will also be welcomed.

Prof. Rosalia Maria Leonardi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • digital dentistry
  • dental imaging
  • oral pathology
  • oral cancer
  • TMJ disorders
  • orofacial pain
  • new technologies in orthodontics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
3D Imaging Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical and Scientific Dental and Orthodontic Fields
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082200 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 317
Abstract
The recent technological updates in medical field are irrevocably changing the clinical work-flow of dentists, from the diagnosis to the treatment plan approaches and decision-making activities [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)

Research

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Article
The Effectiveness of Physical Therapy in Patients with Generalized Joint Hypermobility and Concurrent Temporomandibular Disorders—A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3808; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173808 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) consist of a group of symptoms such as: pain of temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles or surrounding tissues, dysfunctions of TMJs’ mobility, and crepitation. The Hypermobility Joint Syndrome (HJS) manifests in the flaccidity of joint structures, an increase in the range [...] Read more.
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) consist of a group of symptoms such as: pain of temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles or surrounding tissues, dysfunctions of TMJs’ mobility, and crepitation. The Hypermobility Joint Syndrome (HJS) manifests in the flaccidity of joint structures, an increase in the range of joint motion, and occurs more often in the young and women. The aim of this study was to present the occurrence of HJS among patients with myogenic TMD and disc displacement with reduction. The secondary goal was to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy directed to TMD with coexisting HJS. The study involved 322 patients with symptoms of TMD. HJS was diagnosed using the Beighton Scale, which confirmed its occurrence in 26 cases. 79 subjects (7 males and 72 females; mean age, 33.9 ± 10.4 years) were selected and divided into two groups: HJS + TMD (n = 26; 2 males and 24 females; mean age, 27.1 ± 9.4 years) and TMD (n = 53; 5 males and 48 females; mean age, 37.4 ± 9.2 years). These patients completed 3-week physiotherapy management. Before and after physiotherapy, the myofascial pain severity on Numeric Pain Rating Scale, linear measurement of maximum mouth opening, and opening pattern, were assessed. To demonstrate differences between the results, the level of significance for statistical analysis was set at α = 0.05. A statistically significant improvement was obtained in decreasing myofascial pain in both groups. Coordination of mandibular movements was achieved in both groups. Generalized joint hypermobility occurred among patients with TMD. Physiotherapy directed to TMD was effective in reducing myofascial pain and restoring TMJ’s coordination also in patients with HJS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Article
A Novel Method for Adjusting the Taper and Adaption of Automatic Tooth Preparations with a High-Power Femtosecond Laser
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(15), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153389 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
This study explored the effect of the light-off delay setting in a robotically controlled femtosecond laser on the taper and adaption of resin tooth preparations. Thirty resin teeth (divided into six equal groups) were studied under different light-off delay conditions. Tapers from six [...] Read more.
This study explored the effect of the light-off delay setting in a robotically controlled femtosecond laser on the taper and adaption of resin tooth preparations. Thirty resin teeth (divided into six equal groups) were studied under different light-off delay conditions. Tapers from six vertical sections of the teeth were measured and compared among the light-off delay groups. The mean taper decreased from 39.268° ± 4.530° to 25.393° ± 5.496° as the light-off delay increased (p < 0.05). The average distance between the occlusal surfaces of the scanned data and the predesigned preparation data decreased from 0.089 ± 0.005 to 0.013 ± 0.030 μm as the light-off delay increased (p < 0.05). The light-off delay of the femtosecond laser is correlated with the taper and adaption of automatic tooth preparations; this setting needs to be considered during automatic tooth preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Article
Behaviour and Anxiety Management of Paediatric Dental Patients through Virtual Reality: A Randomised Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(14), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143019 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Clinicians should appreciate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) headsets for managing both the anxiety and the behaviour of non-cooperative paediatric patients who require treatment over several dental appointments. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a VR [...] Read more.
Clinicians should appreciate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) headsets for managing both the anxiety and the behaviour of non-cooperative paediatric patients who require treatment over several dental appointments. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a VR headset as a distraction for managing the anxiety and behaviour of paediatric patients during their dental treatment. Eighty patients, aged between five and ten years old and who required dental treatment over three or more appointments, were randomly allocated into two groups. One group used a VR headset during all their appointments, and the other one did not use any distraction technique. The patients were asked to take a Facial Image Scale Test during their first and last appointments to assess their level of anxiety. Additionally, the dentist completed the Frankl Test to quantify the child’s behaviour at the beginning and the end of their treatment. The results obtained, both from the group using the VR headset and from the control group, were compared using the chi-square test. The use of a VR headset during dental treatment significantly reduced anxiety (95% of the children were happy) and improved behaviour (100% positive behaviour) as compared with the control group (40% and 57.5%, respectively). A VR headset can effectively distract a paediatric patient, helping to reduce anxiety and manage behaviour during dental treatment Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Article
Quality of Life of Patients after Kinesio Tape Applications Following Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgeries
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(10), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102197 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
Today, extraction of the impacted third molar is the most common procedure performed in oral surgery departments. One of the methods currently investigated—in terms reducing the severity of non-infectious complications and decreasing Quality of Life following third molar surgeries—is Kinesio Taping (KT). The [...] Read more.
Today, extraction of the impacted third molar is the most common procedure performed in oral surgery departments. One of the methods currently investigated—in terms reducing the severity of non-infectious complications and decreasing Quality of Life following third molar surgeries—is Kinesio Taping (KT). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of Kinesio Tape application on Quality of Life. A total of 100 asymptomatic patients with impacted third lower molar were included. The study participants were randomly divided into two groups: a study group with the application of KT (n = 50) and a control group (without KT) (n = 50). Removal of the impacted third lower molar was performed in each patient in a standardized fashion. For assessment of Quality of Life, the modified University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QoL v4) was used. Patients with Kinesio Tape application scored higher in all domains. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found in the following domains: “Activity”, “Mood”, “Health-related QoL during the past 7 days” and “Overall QoL during the past 7 days”. There were no significant differences in significant problems and important issues between groups. Kinesio Taping has a significant impact on Quality of Life after impacted third molar removal. It should be considered as one of the noninvasive methods to reduce postoperative non-infectious complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Article
Vertical Bite Rehabilitation of Severely Worn Dentitions with Direct Composite Restorations: Clinical Performance up to 11 Years
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081732 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Our aim was to evaluate the clinical performance of direct composite restorations placed in patients with severely worn dentitions at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion, after up to 11 years. One hundred and sixty-four teeth in 13 patients with severely worn dentitions [...] Read more.
Our aim was to evaluate the clinical performance of direct composite restorations placed in patients with severely worn dentitions at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion, after up to 11 years. One hundred and sixty-four teeth in 13 patients with severely worn dentitions had been reconstructed with either microhybrid (first cohort; n = 59) or nanofilled (second cohort; n = 105) composite restorations at increased vertical dimension of occlusion using a wax-up-based template-aided placement technique. From the dental records, information about repair and replacement of restorations was obtained. Patients were clinically examined after a mean follow-up time of 10.7 years (first cohort) or 5.2 years (second cohort) using United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Subjective patient satisfaction was also recorded using visual analogue scales (VAS). The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly ‘Alpha’ and ‘Bravo’ scores, respectively. Nanofilled composite showed less surface degradation and better margin qualities than microhybrid composite. Of the 59 restored teeth in the first cohort, 13 restorations showed unfavorable events after 10.7 years, of which ten could be repaired. In the second cohort, 23 of 105 restorations showed unfavorable events, which could all be repaired. VAS scores revealed high patient satisfaction with the treatment approach. In conclusion, direct composite restorations placed at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion show good clinical long-term performance in patients with severe tooth wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Article
Digital Assessment of Gingival Dimensions of Healthy Periodontium
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081550 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to re-visit the gingival dimension using digital scanning in a healthy Korean population. Forty-eight periodontally healthy volunteers (38 males and 10 females, mean age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years) were included. The mucogingival junction was highlighted using [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to re-visit the gingival dimension using digital scanning in a healthy Korean population. Forty-eight periodontally healthy volunteers (38 males and 10 females, mean age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years) were included. The mucogingival junction was highlighted using 2.5% diluted iodine solution. Then, the facial gingiva and mucosa of both jaws were digitally scanned using an intraoral digital scanner. Using computer software and periodontal probing, the heights and areas of keratinized gingiva (KG) and attached gingiva (AG) were measured. Similar distribution patterns in the gingival heights were noted in the maxilla and mandible. The maxilla showed substantially greater gingival values than the mandible. The heights of the KG and AG were notably smaller on the mandibular first premolar (2.37 mm and 1.07 mm, median value) and second molar (3.28 mm and 1.78 mm) than on the other teeth. The area of the KG was the largest in the canine (63.74 mm2 and 46.85 mm2) and first molar (64.14 mm2 and 58.82 mm2) in each jaw. Mandibular first and second molars, mandibular canine, and maxillary canine showed the highest value of the area under the receiver operation characteristics curve (>0.7) for differentiating between males and females. The gingival dimensions recorded using intraoral scanner demonstrated similar distribution patterns as in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Article
Stannous Fluoride Preventive Effect on Enamel Erosion: An In Vitro Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092755 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of a single dose application of two daily toothpastes on enamel exposed to acid attack. The research was conducted on human molars enamel fragments (n = 72). The two different [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of a single dose application of two daily toothpastes on enamel exposed to acid attack. The research was conducted on human molars enamel fragments (n = 72). The two different toothpastes active ingredients were sodium fluoride (NaF) and stannous fluoride (SnF2). They were compared in protecting the surface of the enamel exposed to three acids: citric acid, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the calcium ions and phosphate released in the solutions by the enamel specimens. Afterward, ionic concentrations were analyzed through the t-Student test, in order to estimate the significance level (p < 0.05) of the solubility differences obtained between the treatment and control groups. Finally, sample surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The two analyzed toothpastes did not reveal any statistically significant variation in the release of calcium and phosphate (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, acid-resistant deposits were detected in samples treated with stannous fluoride and exposed to lactic acid, though the presence of tin ion deposits on samples treated with stannous fluoride was not shown. A single dose of a fluoride-based toothpaste before different acids attack, in simulated oral cavity conditions, did not show a significant preventive effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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Review

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Review
Conceptual Model for Using Imidazoline Derivative Solutions in Pulpal Management
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061212 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Alpha-adrenergic agonists, such as the Imidazoline derivatives (ImDs) of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline, are highly effective hemostatic agents. ImDs have not been widely used in dentistry but their use in medicine, specifically in ophthalmology and otolaryngology, warrants consideration for pulpal hemostasis. This review presents [...] Read more.
Alpha-adrenergic agonists, such as the Imidazoline derivatives (ImDs) of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline, are highly effective hemostatic agents. ImDs have not been widely used in dentistry but their use in medicine, specifically in ophthalmology and otolaryngology, warrants consideration for pulpal hemostasis. This review presents dental healthcare professionals with an overview of ImDs in medicine. ImD solutions have the potential to be more effective and biocompatible than existing topical hemostatic compounds in pulpal management. Through a comprehensive analysis of the pharmacology of ImDs and the microphysiology of hemostasis regulation in oral tissues, a conceptual model of pulpal management by ImD solutions is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements and New Technologies in Clinical Dentistry)
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