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Special Issue "Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 6829

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Xurxo Dopico Calvo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Performance and Health Group, University of A Coruna, 15179 Oleiros, Spain
Interests: sport sciences; sport and health; sport exercise
Dr. Rafael Lima Kons
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador 40110-100, BA, Brazil
Interests: health sciences; physical education
Dr. Jose Morales Aznar
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Faculty of Psychology, Education Sciences and Sport Blanquerna, Ramon Llull University, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: sport sciences; sports medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that the field of study of combat sports and martial arts has increased in recent years.

We are excited to invite sports scientists interested in publishing their advances on performance analysis during the fighting, evaluating, and monitoring of athletes during training and competition, and analyzing the impact of physical and mental health effects linked to the practice of combat sports and martial arts.

The growing numbers of practitioners of different modalities in these sports have stimulated sports scientists to study aspects related to performance and the effects of the practice of these sports on physical and mental health. The accumulated information has helped coaches guide the different intervention processes with greater precision, thus increasing the level and possibilities of sports success and its practice. In order to continue increasing the knowledge in this sports field, we will accept articles of interventional studies, random controlled trials, and systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis, on combat sports and martial arts, related to:

  • Observational analysis in competition;
  • Monitoring, evaluation, and control of the athlete;
  • Physiology of effort;
  • Biomechanics of skills (techniques);
  • Body composition, weight management, and nutrition;
  • Psychological Aspects of the practitioners;
  • Effects of practice and health;
  • Applied teaching-learning and motor control processes;
  • Injuries.

Therefore, we cordially invite all colleagues from the most diverse martial arts and combat sports to collaborate on this Special Issue, and we thank you in advance for your attention and availability.

Dr. Xurxo Dopico Calvo
Dr. Rafael Lima Kons
Dr. Jose Morales Aznar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • evaluation and monitoring
  • observational analysis
  • health effects
  • physiology
  • body composition and weight management
  • injuries
  • biomechanics
  • learning and motor control
  • psychology
  • physical education
  • nutrition and ergogenic

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of a Six Week In-Season Training Program on Wrestling-Specific Competitive Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159325 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The effect of multi-component training on specific performance is under-researched in wrestlers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six weeks of multi-component training on The Special Wrestling Fitness Test (SWFT) performances of wrestlers who were preparing for an [...] Read more.
The effect of multi-component training on specific performance is under-researched in wrestlers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six weeks of multi-component training on The Special Wrestling Fitness Test (SWFT) performances of wrestlers who were preparing for an international championship, and to, additionally, determine their inter-individual adaptive variability. The wrestlers (n = 13; 7 females; all international level) underwent technical-tactical and physical fitness training for the six weeks before the championship, 12 sessions per week (i.e., 36 h per week). Before and after the intervention the athletes were assessed with the SWFT, a wrestling-specific competitive performance test that includes measurements for throws, heart rate response to the SWFT, and the SWFT index. Significant pre–post intervention improvements were noted for throws (pre = 23.5 ± 2.9; post = 24.9 ± 3.6; p = 0.022) and SWFTindex (pre = 14.9 ± 2.2; post = 14.1 ± 2.2; p = 0.013. In conclusion, six weeks of multi-component training improved wrestling-specific competitive performances in highly-trained wrestlers, although with a meaningful inter-subject variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
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Article
Maximum Isometric and Dynamic Strength of Mixed Martial Arts Athletes According to Weight Class and Competitive Level
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148741 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes must achieve high strength levels to face the physical demands of an MMA fight. This study compared MMA athletes’ maximal isometric and dynamic strength according to the competitive level and weight class. Twenty-one male MMA athletes were divided [...] Read more.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes must achieve high strength levels to face the physical demands of an MMA fight. This study compared MMA athletes’ maximal isometric and dynamic strength according to the competitive level and weight class. Twenty-one male MMA athletes were divided into lightweight professional (LWP; n = 9), lightweight elite (LWE; n = 4), heavyweight professional (HWP; n = 4), and heavyweight elite (HWE; n = 4). The handgrip and isometric lumbar strength tests assessed the isometric strength, and the one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 4RM leg press the dynamic strength. Univariate ANOVA showed differences between groups in absolute and relative 1RM bench press and absolute isometric lumbar strength. Post hoc tests showed differences in 1RM bench press between HWE and LWE (117.0 ± 17.8 kg vs. 81.0 ± 10.0 kg) and HWE and LWP athletes (117.0 ± 17.8 kg vs. 76.7 ± 13.7 kg; 1.5 ± 0.2 kg·BW−1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 kg·BW−1). In addition, there was a correlation between 1RM bench press and isometric lumbar strength for absolute (r = 0.67) and relative values (r = 0.50). This study showed that the 1RM bench press and isometric lumbar strength were associated and could differentiate MMA athletes according to their competitive level and weight class. Therefore, optimizing the force production in the upper body and lower back seems important in elite and professional MMA athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
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Article
Comparison of the Physical Fitness Profile of Muay Thai and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes with Reference to Training Experience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148451 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Background: In combat sports, successful competition and training require comprehensive motor fitness. The aim of this study was to diagnose the level of physical fitness and to determine the level of differences between athletes of combat sports characterized by stand-up fighting, such as [...] Read more.
Background: In combat sports, successful competition and training require comprehensive motor fitness. The aim of this study was to diagnose the level of physical fitness and to determine the level of differences between athletes of combat sports characterized by stand-up fighting, such as Muay Thai; and ground fighting, such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Methods: The study examined and compared 30 participants divided into two equal groups: Muay Thai athletes (n = 15; age: 24.24 ± 3.24; body height: 174.91 ± 5.19; body weight: 77.56 ± 7.3), and Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) (n = 15; age: 22.82 ± 1.81; body height: 175.72 ± 7.03; body weight: 77.11 ± 8.12). Basic characteristics of the somatic build were measured. Selected manifestations of the motor potential of motor skills were also evaluated using selected tests from the EUROFIT test battery, the International Test of Physical Fitness, and computer tests of coordination skills. Relative strength and maximal anaerobic work (MAW) indices were calculated. The strength of the relationship between the effect of motor fitness and training experience was also assessed. Results: The athletes of both groups (Muay Thai and BJJ) presented similar levels of basic characteristics of the somatic build. Motor fitness in the tested groups showed significant differences between the athletes of these sports in static strength (p = 0.010), relative strength (p = 0.006), arm muscle strength in pull-ups (p = 0.035), and functional strength in bent arm hanging (p = 0.023). Higher levels of these components of motor fitness were found for the athletes in the BJJ athletes. In the Muay Thai group, significant very high strength of association was found between training experience and five strength tests. Furthermore, a significantly high strength of association was found in two tests. In the BJJ group, significant relationships with very high correlation were found between the variables in five strength tests. Conclusions: Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes performed better in strength tests (static strength, relative strength, shoulder girdle strength, functional strength). High correlations between the training load and the level of physical fitness were found in flexibility and strength tests in BJJ athletes and most strength tests in Muay Thai athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
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Article
Personality and Age of Male National Team of Ukraine in Kyokushin Karate—Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127225 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
This article is a continuation of the research on personality in combat sports in karate. The authors’ goal was to verify the relationship between personality and age of kyokushin karate practitioners. The male national team of Ukraine in karate kyokushin (N = [...] Read more.
This article is a continuation of the research on personality in combat sports in karate. The authors’ goal was to verify the relationship between personality and age of kyokushin karate practitioners. The male national team of Ukraine in karate kyokushin (N = 7) participated in the personality study with the use of the Big Five model. The NEO-FFI (NEO Five-Factor Inventory) Personality Questionnaire was applied as a research tool and the package of statistical methods IBM SPSS Statistics 27.0 (IBM Polska, Warszawa, Poland) was used to compute the research results. The study showed that there were differences in the intensity of openness to experiences between individual samples only at the level of the statistical trend. Masters showed a higher level of openness to experiences in relation to juniors (p = 0.081) and seniors (p = 0.097). Also, a negative and strong correlation between the intensity of neuroticism and conscientiousness among the respondents was noted. A conclusion was drawn that, with age, karatekas probably manifest greater openness to experience, which is the result of their sports experience, high sports level and pro-health values of karate. On the other hand, good emotional adaptation of karatekas is strictly related to conscientiousness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
Article
Parental Perceptions of Youths’ Desirable Characteristics in Relation to Type of Leisure: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis of Martial-Art-Practicing Youths
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095725 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Parents place their youths in sport with the belief that doing so will produce developmental outcomes. However, it is unclear if parents enroll children in different sports based on different desired characteristics they wish their youth to develop. This paper analyses the link [...] Read more.
Parents place their youths in sport with the belief that doing so will produce developmental outcomes. However, it is unclear if parents enroll children in different sports based on different desired characteristics they wish their youth to develop. This paper analyses the link between youths engaged in martial arts (MA) compared to other leisure activities. MA research has indicated the importance of masculinity and gender ideals that suggest that parents hold certain visions when enrolling their youths in MA. For example, one such vision is for their youths to be able to handle themselves in physical encounters. Two research questions guided the study. First, what characteristics do MA parents desire their children to develop? Secondly, how do these desires correspond to MA youths’ actual characteristics? We utilize multinomial logistic regression analysis on nationally representative data from the Netherlands. The results show that MA parents are younger, their youths are of migration background, and the parents value characteristics such as self-control, responsibility, and acting “gender appropriately”. These results correspond to their youths; MA youths are consistently characterized by more masculinity compared to the youths in other groups. The results bear implications for how MA environments must safeguard against potentially harmful and misleading norms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
Article
Analysis of Successful Behaviors Leading to Groundwork Scoring Skills in Elite Judo Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063165 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
The present study aimed (1) to propose an approach of observational analysis of the preceding standing judo (tachi-waza (TW)) context to a groundwork (ne-waza (NW)) grappling score (NWGS), and (2) to analyze the outcomes of applying such a model in high-level judoists. We [...] Read more.
The present study aimed (1) to propose an approach of observational analysis of the preceding standing judo (tachi-waza (TW)) context to a groundwork (ne-waza (NW)) grappling score (NWGS), and (2) to analyze the outcomes of applying such a model in high-level judoists. We conducted an observational analysis of 176 NW scoring actions of 794 combats observed in Baku’s World Judo Championships of 2018. Women scored more NWGS, performing more corporal controls but less segmental controls compared with the men. Moreover, NWGS were scored predominately during the second and third minutes of combat, independently of the sex or the weight category. Most NWGS occurred after an asymmetrical lateral structure, without showing associations with a particular type of NWGS. The movement structure of the attacking action during TW leading to an NWGS was predominantly techniques without turn, followed closely by techniques with turn, and barely performed after supine position techniques. Data showed that NWGS occurred more frequently after a failed TW attack (68.6%) than after a scored TW attack (31.4%). The TW attacker achieved NWGS with a higher frequency (62%) than the TW defender (38%), who mainly took advantage of a failed TW attack (98.5% vs. 1.5%, after failed vs. scored TW, respectively). The grip configurations most frequently employed during TW were dorsal-sleeve and flap-sleeve; overall, frontal grips were predominant over dorsal grips. However, no specific TW grip was related to success or grip progression before an NWGS. Our results will help judo coaches understand the influence of these factors on judo performance and optimize the planning and execution of technical–tactical content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
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Article
Relative and Chronological Age in Successful Athletes at the World Taekwondo Championships (1997–2019): A Focus on the Behaviour of Multiple Medallists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031425 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
The aims of this study were to investigate the relative and chronological age among taekwondo world medal winners (by gender, Olympic 4-year period, Olympic weight category; N = 740), and to study the behaviour of multiple medallists (N = 156) to monitor [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to investigate the relative and chronological age among taekwondo world medal winners (by gender, Olympic 4-year period, Olympic weight category; N = 740), and to study the behaviour of multiple medallists (N = 156) to monitor changes in weight categories and wins over time. The observed birth quartile distribution for the heavyweight category was significantly skewed (p = 0.01). Female athletes (22.2 ± 3.5 years) achieve success at a significantly younger age (p = 0.01) than their male counterparts (23.6 ± 3.3 years). In the weight categories, female flyweights were significantly younger than those welterweights (p = 0.03) and heavyweight (p = 0.01); female featherweights were significantly younger than those heavyweights (p = 0.03). Male flyweights and featherweights were significantly younger than those welterweights and heavyweights (p = 0.01). When a taekwondo athlete won a medal several times, he/she did so within the same Olympic weight category group and won two medals in his/her career (p = 0.01). Multiple medallists of the lighter and heavier groups did not differ in the number of medals won but in the time span in which they won medals (p = 0.02). The resources deployed by stakeholders to achieve success in these competitions highlight an extremely competitive environment. In this sense, the information provided by this study can be relevant and translated into key elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
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Article
Monitoring of Eccentric Hamstring Strength and Eccentric Derived Strength Ratios in Judokas from a Single Weight Category
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010604 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
Background: This study was designed to perform isokinetic knee testing of male judokas competing in the under 73 kg category. The main aims were: to establish the concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) strength profile of hamstrings (H) and CON profile of quadriceps (Q) [...] Read more.
Background: This study was designed to perform isokinetic knee testing of male judokas competing in the under 73 kg category. The main aims were: to establish the concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) strength profile of hamstrings (H) and CON profile of quadriceps (Q) muscles; to evaluate the differences in CON and ECC peak torques (PT) with various strength ratios and their bilateral asymmetries; the calculation of the dynamic control ratio (DCR) and H ECC to CON ratio (HEC); Methods: 12 judokas competing on a national and international levels with a mean age of 19 ± 4 years, a weight of 75 ± 2 kg and with a height of 176 ± 5 cm were tested. All the subjects were right-hand dominant. Isokinetic testing was performed on iMOMENT, SMM isokinetic machine (SMM, Maribor, Slovenia). The paired t-test was used to determine the difference between paired variables. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05; Results: Statistical differences between left (L) and right (R) Q PT (L 266; R 241 Nm), H ECC PT (L 145; R 169 Nm), HQR (L 0.54; R 0.63), DCR (L 0.55; R 0.70), HEC (L 1.02; R 1.14) and PTQ/BW (L 3.57; R 3.23 Nm/kg) were shown. Bilateral strength asymmetries in CON contraction of 13.52% ± 10.04 % for Q, 10.86% ± 7.67 % for H and 22.04% ± 12.13% for H ECC contraction were shown. Conclusions: This study reports the isokinetic strength values of judokas in the under 73 kg category, emphasising eccentric hamstring strength and eccentric derived strength ratios DCR and HEC. It was shown that asymmetries are better detected using eccentric testing and that the dominant leg in judokas had stronger eccentric hamstring strength resulting in higher DCR and HEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Martial Arts and Combat Sports on Health)
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