Advanced Research on Lipid Components in Food

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2020) | Viewed by 34256

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
LAQV/REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Interests: analytical methods; food lipids; food technology; food authenticity; food safety; food waste
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lipids are amongst the most important yet complex components of foods. They influence food nutritive value, food bioactivity and bioaccessibility, and food sensory perceptions, while simultaneously being the source of a complex array of oxidation products that can negatively impact human health. Due to this diversity, lipid analysis has always challenged food scientists. In recent decades, we have assisted in the tremendous evolution of the techniques available for lipid analysis, helping to gradually change them from being restricted and to target focus on specific components to lipidomics, widening the available information while enabling deeper understanding of lipids and their functions. While gravimetric techniques and simple chromatographic methods remain applicable for classical analyses, the most recent development in tandem chromatography and nondestructive spectroscopic techniques allow us today to look into lipids with a totally different perspective, more efficiently supporting the most recent research on food lipids.

From macro- to microconstituents, from physical to chemical methods or from naturally present to degradation products, this Special Issue on advanced research lipids in food aims to compile some of the most innovative research in modern food lipids.

Dr. Susana Casal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lipid oxidation
  • Lipidomics and lipid profiling
  • Functional lipids
  • Bioaccessibility
  • Nondestructive methods
  • Structural analysis
  • Food safety
  • Food quality
  • Food authenticity/fraud
  • Food processing
  • Greener methods
  • Novel lipid sources
  • Food lipids waste

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Determination of Oxidized Lipids in Commonly Consumed Foods and a Preliminary Analysis of Their Binding Affinity to PPARγ
by Joanna Skinner, Payal Arora, Nicole McMath and Meera Penumetcha
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081702 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Foods rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are vulnerable to oxidation. While it is well established that endogenously derived oxidized lipids are ligands of the transcription factor PPARγ, the binding ability of diet-derived oxidized lipids is unknown. Our two-fold objective was to [...] Read more.
Foods rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are vulnerable to oxidation. While it is well established that endogenously derived oxidized lipids are ligands of the transcription factor PPARγ, the binding ability of diet-derived oxidized lipids is unknown. Our two-fold objective was to determine the oxidized lipid content and PPARγ binding ability of commonly consumed foods. Extracted food lipids were assayed for the peroxide value, conjugated dienes, and aldehydes, and PPARγ binding was assessed by an in vitro PPARγ ligand screening assay. Oxidized lipids were present in all foods tested at the time of purchase, and oxidation did not increase during storage. The peroxide values for walnuts, sunflower seeds, and flax meal were significantly lower at the end of three months as compared to the day of purchase (peroxide value: 1.26 ± 0.13 vs. 2.32 ± 0.4; 1.65 ± 0.23 vs. 2.08 ± 0.09; 3.07 ± 0.22 vs. 9.94 ± 0.75 mEq/kg fat, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Lipids extracted from French fries had the highest binding affinity (50.87 ± 11.76%) to PPARγ compared to other foods. Our work demonstrates that oxidized lipids are present in commonly consumed foods when purchased, and for the first time demonstrates that some contain ligands of PPARγ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Lipid Components in Food)
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14 pages, 465 KiB  
Article
Selection of Vegetable Oils and Frying Cycles Influencing Acrylamide Formation in the Intermittently Fried Beef Nuggets
by Siti Nur Syahirah Ahmad, Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi, Raznim Arni Abd Razak, Selamat Jinap, Saparin Norliza, Rabiha Sulaiman and Maimunah Sanny
Foods 2021, 10(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020257 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3638
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils and frying cycles on acrylamide formation during the intermittent frying of beef nuggets. Different vegetable oils, palm olein (PO), red palm olein (RPO), sunflower oil (SFO), and soybean oil (SBO), were used [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils and frying cycles on acrylamide formation during the intermittent frying of beef nuggets. Different vegetable oils, palm olein (PO), red palm olein (RPO), sunflower oil (SFO), and soybean oil (SBO), were used for a total of 80 frying cycles. Oil was collected at every 16th frying cycle and analyzed for peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), free fatty acid (FFA), total polar compound (TPC), polar compound fractions, and fatty acid composition (FAC). Total oxidation (TOTOX) value was calculated, and acrylamide content was quantified in the nuggets. Regardless of the oil type, PV, p-AV, and TOTOX initially increased but gradually decreased. However, FFA and TPC continued to develop across the 80 frying cycles. The C18:2/C16:0 remained almost unchanged in PO and RPO but dropped progressively in SFO and SBO. The lowest acrylamide content in fried products was observed in the PO, while the highest content was observed in RPO. Bivariate correlation analysis showed no significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between oil quality attributes and acrylamide concentration. The oil type but not the frying cycle significantly affected the acrylamide concentration in beef nuggets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Lipid Components in Food)
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11 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acid Composition of the Lipids from Atlantic Salmon—Comparison of Two Extraction Methods without Halogenated Solvents
by Jordan T. Nechev, Guro K. Edvinsen and Karl-Erik Eilertsen
Foods 2021, 10(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010073 - 1 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4028
Abstract
The scope of this paper was to apply two recently developed methods for lipid extraction: the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) method and the BUME method. These two methods do not include halogenated solvents, which makes them less hazardous to the environment, less toxic, [...] Read more.
The scope of this paper was to apply two recently developed methods for lipid extraction: the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) method and the BUME method. These two methods do not include halogenated solvents, which makes them less hazardous to the environment, less toxic, and needed in less volume compared to the standard methods for lipid extraction. Fatty acid composition of the lipids from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnæus, 1758) was obtained by both procedures. The methods were effective and thirty-three fatty acids were identified. The amounts of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids obtained by the MTBE method were found to be similar to the overall mean values observed in farmed salmon. The yield of the total lipids obtained by the BUME method was 13% lower. Although the methods involved different solvents, they showed similar fatty acids profile of the lipids from Atlantic salmon. Both methods were validated and some practical challenges were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Lipid Components in Food)
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16 pages, 1244 KiB  
Article
Cuticular Wax Composition of Wild and Cultivated Northern Berries
by Linards Klavins and Maris Klavins
Foods 2020, 9(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050587 - 5 May 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4717
Abstract
The outer-most layer of plant surface, the cuticle, consists of epi- and intra-cuticular wax. It protects the plant from dehydration, extreme temperatures and UV radiation, as well as attacks from pests such as molds and bacteria. Berry cuticular waxes are studied to understand [...] Read more.
The outer-most layer of plant surface, the cuticle, consists of epi- and intra-cuticular wax. It protects the plant from dehydration, extreme temperatures and UV radiation, as well as attacks from pests such as molds and bacteria. Berry cuticular waxes are studied to understand the metabolism character (factors affecting wax layer composition in different berry species) and increase the microbial resistance and shelf life of berries. The aim of this study was analysis of the surface wax composition of nine species of wild and cultivated berries from Northern Europe. Cuticular wax analysis were done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 59 different compounds were identified belonging to nine groups of compounds, namely, alkanes, phytosterols, alcohols, fatty acids, phenolic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and tocopherols. The analyzed blueberries had the highest amount of wax present on their surface (0.9 mg berry−1), triterpenoids were the main wax constituent in these berries, with up to 62% wax composition. Berry species and varieties were compared based on their surface wax composition—similarities were found between different blueberry varieties; however, other berries showed differences based on concentration and composition of cuticular wax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Lipid Components in Food)
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Review

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27 pages, 568 KiB  
Review
Oleogels in Food: A Review of Current and Potential Applications
by Andreea Pușcaș, Vlad Mureșan, Carmen Socaciu and Sevastița Muste
Foods 2020, 9(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010070 - 8 Jan 2020
Cited by 155 | Viewed by 18351
Abstract
Legislative limitations of the use of trans and saturated fatty acids, the rising concerns among consumers about the negative effects of some fats on human health, and environmental and health considerations regarding the increased use of palm fat in food and biodiesel production [...] Read more.
Legislative limitations of the use of trans and saturated fatty acids, the rising concerns among consumers about the negative effects of some fats on human health, and environmental and health considerations regarding the increased use of palm fat in food and biodiesel production drove to innovations in reformulating fat-containing food products. Oleogelation is one of the most in-trend methods for reducing or replacing the unhealthy and controversial fats in food products. Different edible oleogels are being formulated by various techniques and used in spreads, bakeries, confectioneries, and dairy and meat products. This review exclusively focuses on up-to-date applications of oleogels in food and mechanisms of gelation, and discusses the properties of new products. Research has produced acceptable reformulated food products with similar technological and rheological properties as the reference products or even products with improved techno-functionality; however, there is still a high need to improve oleogelation methods, as well as the technological process of oleogel-based foods products. Despite other strategies that aim to reduce or replace the occurrence of trans and saturated fats in food, oleogelation presents a great potential for industrial application in the future due to nutritional and environmental considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Lipid Components in Food)
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