Special Issue "New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 4330

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Yeong-Hsiang Cheng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Functional Molecular Nutrition Lab., Dep. of Biotech. and Animal Science, National ILan University, Yilan, Taiwan
Interests: applied in functional feed additives; mycotoxins harmful mechanism and detection service; useful genes cloning and expression for animal industries
Dr. Monika Stefaniuk-Szmukier
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Molecular Biology, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Krakow, Poland
Interests: equine genetics; equine husbandry; equine breeding; genetic diversity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Poultry microbiota and microbiota of other animals with economic importance are expanding rapidly, leading to increased expectations around productivity and sustainability in animal production that can be optimized by microbiota manipulation. Next-generation sequencing metagenomics can be used as a tool for sequencing all the nucleic acids of microbial origin, including bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and archaea, which are hosted at distinct concentrations, to accomplish complete digestion of poultry and domestic animals.

The intestinal microbiome protects the host animal against dietary exchange, environmental stress, and diseases through various mechanisms, including the modulation of the immune system, promoting health and productivity in animals. The perturbation of this commensal microbiota can result in intestinal disorders such as dysbiosis, enteritis, nutrient malabsorption, and diarrhea. These health problems represent major welfare and economic concerns in the current intensive herbivorous and ruminant production systems.

Compounds, natural phytogenic feed additives, enzymes, essential oil, and 2nd fermentation metabolites modulate gastro-intestinal microbiota in animals or prevent digestion disorder. Papers that focus on the mechanism of microbiota and ecology, gastro-intestinal microflora manipulation, animal product quality, and animal welfare are particularly welcome.

We invite original research papers that address intestinal microbiota influenced by diets, fermentation products or byproducts, environment stress, weanling, nutrient imbalance, feed additive manipulation approaches, and diarrhea problems in poultry and other animals.

Prof. Dr. Yeong-Hsiang Cheng
Dr. Monika Stefaniuk-Szmukier
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • intestinal microbiota
  • intestinal microbiota manipulation
  • probiotics and prebiotics
  • fermentation products
  • poultry
  • intestinal function disorder
  • feed additives
  • chickens
  • gut microbiota
  • pigs

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Mixed Solid-State Fermentation of Okara and Copra Meal by Probiotics with Non-Starch Polysaccharide Enzymes and Its Effects on the Growth Performance and Ileal Microbiota in Broilers
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100478 - 23 Sep 2022
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Abstract
With the global shortage of feed ingredients, the use of agricultural by-products has become an alternative to animal feed. Okara, a by-product of soymilk and tofu processing, is high in nutrients but contains non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and has a high-water content, which are [...] Read more.
With the global shortage of feed ingredients, the use of agricultural by-products has become an alternative to animal feed. Okara, a by-product of soymilk and tofu processing, is high in nutrients but contains non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and has a high-water content, which are disadvantages in animal feed. Herein, we mixed okara and copra meal (CM) with probiotics (Lactobacillus species and Clostridium butyricum) and NSP enzymes (NSPases) for solid-state fermentation (SSF) to enhance okara feed value; the optimal parameters of fermented okara and CM (FOCM) and their effects on broiler growth performance and ileal microbiota were investigated. The result showed that FOCM in combination with NSPases and probiotics at 55% of the initial moisture content and 60 h fermentation time at 37 °C were able to degrade NSP and reduce sugar content. After fermentation, the total viable counts, lactic acid, and butyric acid contents in the FOCM were 8.6 log CFU/g, 3.7%, and 17.15%, respectively. During the fifth week of the feeding period and over the whole feeding period, broilers fed with 1.25% and 2.5% FOCM had a better feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05); both groups increased the duodenal villus length (p < 0.05). Further microbiome analysis suggested that FOCM significantly increased the abundance of the phylum Firmicutes and reduced the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella in the ileal content (p < 0.05). Collectively, supplementation of probiotics and enzymes during SSF was found to be effective in enhancing the nutritional value of FOCM. Moreover, dietary supplementation of FOCM improved the broiler feed conversion ratio, gut morphology, and ileal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals)
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Article
The Effect of Forage Source and Concentrated Liquid Feedstuff Supplementation on Improving the Synchronization of Ruminant Dietary Energy and Nitrogen Release In Vitro
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090443 - 06 Sep 2022
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with a mixture of molasses and condensed molasses fermentation solubles (M-CMS) in different synchronization diets formulated with different forage sources in an attempt to improve the fermentation efficiency of diets by M-CMS. In the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with a mixture of molasses and condensed molasses fermentation solubles (M-CMS) in different synchronization diets formulated with different forage sources in an attempt to improve the fermentation efficiency of diets by M-CMS. In the first experiment, three levels of M-CMS (N: 0%; L: 1.75%; and H: 3.50%) were supplied to diets with or without corn silage to evaluate the supplementation effect on the diet with a synchrony index (SI) of 0.80. In the second experiment, diets containing different corn silage levels (60 or 30% of the forage source) were used to evaluate the effects of M-CMS supplementation on higher SI (at 0.88). The in vitro digestibility, fermentation products, microbial crude protein (MCP), and gas kinetic parameters were determined after 48 h of fermentation. The results demonstrated that M-CMS supplementation improved MCP synthesis in both diets with low and high SI, but did not enhance digestibility. M-CMS supplementation was beneficial to the fermentation stability and extent. It also affected the gas kinetic parameters of the fast- and slow-degradation fractions during fermentation. M-CMS supplementation improved MCP synthesis in diets containing less corn silage. The forage source and degradation rate of individual ingredients should be considered simultaneously to enhance the rumen fermentation efficiency. M-CMS provided a practical choice to further improve MCP synthesis and fermentation stability, even in a diet with high SI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals)
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Article
Enhancing Rumen Fermentation Characteristic and Methane Mitigation Using Phytonutrient Pellet in Beef Cattle
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8050239 - 20 May 2022
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Abstract
The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit peel pellet (CRP) supplementation on rumen fermentation, feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance in crossbred beef cattle. Four [...] Read more.
The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit peel pellet (CRP) supplementation on rumen fermentation, feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance in crossbred beef cattle. Four beef cattle crossbred bulls (Brahman 75% × Thai native 25%), with 250 ± 15 kg of liveweight at 18 months old, were randomly selected to receive four dietary treatment groups: no supplementation (control) and the supplementation of CRP at 2, 4 and 6% of dry matter intake (DMI) by using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The cattle were fed a concentrate at 2 kg/day, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. The results showed that rumen pH at 4 h and average post-feeding values were in the normal range, though they were slightly reduced with CRP supplementation at 4 and 6% DMI (p < 0.05). Rumen temperature, ammonia nitrogen level, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate (C2), and butyrate (C4) production were similar among treatments. Nevertheless, propionate (C3) concentration was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the CRP groups at 2 and 4% DMI. In addition, the C2/C3 ratio and CH4 production were significantly reduced in the CRP groups, especially at 2 and 4% DMI. Rice straw intake and total feed intake in terms of %BW were significantly higher in the groups with CRP at 2 and 4% DMI (p < 0.05). The apparent nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the treatments. Nitrogen intake, nitrogen absorption, and nitrogen retention were significantly enhanced by the CRP supplementation (p < 0.05). Moreover, feces and total nitrogen excretion were not different among treatments (p > 0.05). Ultimately, the supplementation of CRP at 2 and 4% DMI significantly improved the C3 concentration, reduced the C2/C3 ratio, mitigated methane production, and enhanced feed intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. Therefore, CRP supplementation shows promise as a rumen dietary enhancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals)
Article
Supplementation of Oilseeds to an Herbage Diet High in Condensed Tannins Affects Methane Production with Minimal Impact on Ruminal Fermentation in Continuous Culture
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030109 - 03 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Condensed tannins (CT) have been observed to reduce enteric CH4 production when added to ruminant diets. However, high concentrations of CT in forages such as sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don) may depress nutrient digestibility. Oilseed crops, high in [...] Read more.
Condensed tannins (CT) have been observed to reduce enteric CH4 production when added to ruminant diets. However, high concentrations of CT in forages such as sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don) may depress nutrient digestibility. Oilseed crops, high in lipid concentration, also reduce enteric CH4 via toxicity to methanogenic bacteria with less depression of nutrient digestibility. However, it is unclear whether combining these two feeds would result in even greater decreases in CH4 without impairing ruminal fermentation. This study used an in vitro continuous culture fermentor system to determine if supplementation of ground oilseeds would further reduce enteric CH4 production while improving nutrient digestibility of high-CT forages. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four diets containing (dry matter basis) 45% orchardgrass (OCH; Dactylis glomerata L.), 45% sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don), and 10% oilseed supplements, using canola (CAN; Brassica napus L.), soybean (SOY; Glycine max L.), sunflower (SUN; Helianthus annuus L.), or a mix of all three species (MIX; in equal proportions). Fermentors were fed 82 g of dry matter/d in four equal feedings over four 10 d periods. Methane was recorded every 10 min, and effluent samples were analyzed for pH, volatile fatty acids, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber to determine apparent and true nutrient digestibilities. The CAN, SUN, and MIX diets had greater concentrations of crude fat (7–8 g/kg) than the SOY diet (5.7 g/kg), which contributed to the greater reduction in enteric CH4 production in those diets (13–27 mg/d) compared to the SOY diet (84 mg/d). Apparent and true nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the addition of ground oilseeds. While N intake increased concomitant with crude protein increases in the diets, there were no additional effects on N flows. While supplementing a high-CT diet with any of the three oilseeds (canola, soybean, sunflower, or a mixture of the three oilseeds) reduced total CH4 emission without depressing nutrient digestibility, canola and mixes containing canola were most effective. Further research is needed in vivo to evaluate whether these results translate to greater feed efficiency and animal production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals)

Review

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Review
Probiotics as a Friendly Antibiotic Alternative: Assessment of Their Effects on the Health and Productive Performance of Poultry
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120672 - 24 Nov 2022
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Abstract
Antibiotics have been used to maintain the overall health of poultry by increasing production efficiency, promoting growth, and improving intestinal function for more than 50 years. However, they have a number of side effects, such as antibiotic resistance, gut dysbiosis, destruction of beneficial [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have been used to maintain the overall health of poultry by increasing production efficiency, promoting growth, and improving intestinal function for more than 50 years. However, they have a number of side effects, such as antibiotic resistance, gut dysbiosis, destruction of beneficial bacteria, and the potential to spread diseases to humans. In order to address the aforementioned issues, a lot of effort is put into the development of antibiotic alternatives. One of them is the use of probiotics that can be added to the feed in order to increase poultry performance and avoid the aforementioned problems. Probiotics are live microorganisms consumed as feed additives or supplements. They function in the poultry gastrointestinal tract to benefit the host. Probiotics improve growth performance, bone health, meat and eggshell quality. The addition of probiotics to the diet also positively affects the immune response, intestinal microflora, and disease resistance. Careful selection of probiotic strains is of utmost importance. This review focuses on the significance of probiotics as a potential antibiotic-free alternative and the way in which they can be used as supplements in poultry feed for boosting production and safeguarding health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Intestinal Microbiota of Poultry and Domestic Animals)
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