Special Issue "Thermodynamic and Thermo-economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Laura Vanoli
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Università degli studi di Napoli “Parthenope”, Naples, Italy
Interests: thermodynamic and thermo-economic analysis of advanced energy systems, energy saving, renewable energy sources, energy planning
Prof. Dr. Francesco Calise
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: fuel cells; advanced optimization techniques; solar thermal systems; concentrating photovoltaic/thermal photovoltaic systems; energy saving in buildings; solar heating and cooling; organic Rankine cycles; geothermal energy; dynamic simulations of energy systems; renewable polygeneration systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Adriano Macaluso
Website
Guest Editor
Parthenope University of Naples | Università Parthenope · Department of Engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to include the most recent studies on energy conversion systems powered by renewable sources, considering conventional and innovative technologies. One of the keys to global energy conversion lies in the synergistic integration and simultaneous exploitation of multiple renewable sources: in this perspective, special attention is given to the so-called "hybrid" systems. Another crucial aspect of the future energy conversion systems is the possibility of simultaneously producing different energy and materials vectors, therefore special attention is also paid to polygenerative systems, to the practice of "load sharing" and to the “green communities".
As regards the polygenerative systems, special attention is paid to two aspects:

  • systems whose energy and material products consist not only in electricity, heat and cold, but also in products deriving from energy-intensive processes of public utility such as the waste water and sludge treatment process, water desalination, biomass and sludge drying process, urban waste treatments and disposal;
  • control and management strategy. The analysis of energy conversion systems should include the market context; the definition of the cost formation process and the identification of an optimum of the operations are fundamental to understand how the technology or the integration of the proposed technologies can represent a viable way. From this point of view, the thermo-economic analysis and optimization - with special regard to the exergoeconomics - is the most advanced thermodynamic diagnosis tool for this purpose.

Prof. Dr. Laura Vanoli
Prof. Dr. Francesco Calise
Dr. Adriano Macaluso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Renewables
  • Hybrid renewables systems
  • Thermoeconomic analysis
  • Exergoeconomic optimization
  • Polygeneration
  • Smart energy system
  • Smart and resilient communities
  • Control and management strategies
  • Circular economy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Design and Performance Test of 2 kW Class Reverse Brayton Cryogenic System
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5089; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195089 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
With the increased commercialization of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables cooled using liquid nitrogen and the use of liquefied natural gas as fuel, the need for large-capacity reverse Brayton cryogenic systems is gradually increasing. In this paper, the thermodynamic design of a reverse [...] Read more.
With the increased commercialization of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables cooled using liquid nitrogen and the use of liquefied natural gas as fuel, the need for large-capacity reverse Brayton cryogenic systems is gradually increasing. In this paper, the thermodynamic design of a reverse Brayton cryogenic system with a cooling capacity of the 2 kW class at 77 K using neon as a refrigerant is described. Unlike conventional reverse Brayton systems, the proposed system uses a cryogenic turbo-expander, scroll compressor, and plate-type heat exchanger. The performance test conducted on the fabricated system is also described. The isentropic efficiency of the cryogenic turbo-expander was measured to be 86%, which is higher than the design specification. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger and the flow rate and operating pressure of the refrigerant were found to be lower than the design specifications. Consequently, the refrigeration capacity of the fabricated reverse Brayton cryogenic system was measured to be 1.23 kW at 77 K. In the future, we expect to achieve the targeted refrigeration capacity through further improvements. In addition, the faster commercialization of HTS power cables and more efficient storage of liquefied natural gas will be realized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mathematical Model of Thermodynamic Processes in the Intake Manifold of a Diesel Engine with Fuel and Water Injection
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4315; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174315 - 20 Aug 2020
Abstract
The article presents the results of a study aimed at creating a mathematical model of thermodynamic processes in the intake manifold of a forced diesel engine, taking into account the features of simultaneous injection of fuel and water into the collector. In the [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of a study aimed at creating a mathematical model of thermodynamic processes in the intake manifold of a forced diesel engine, taking into account the features of simultaneous injection of fuel and water into the collector. In the course of the study, the tasks of developing a mathematical model were solved, it was implemented in the existing software for component simulation “Internal combustion engine research and development” (ICE RnD), created using the Modelica language, and verification was undertaken using the results of bench tests of diesel engines with injection fuel and water into the intake manifold. The mathematical model is based on a system of equations for the energy and mass balances of gases and includes detailed mathematical submodels of the processes of simultaneous evaporation of fuel and water in the intake manifold; it takes into account the effect of the evaporation of fuel and water on the parameters of the gas state in the intake manifold; it takes into account the influence of the state parameters of the working fluid in the intake manifold on the physical characteristics of fuel and water; it meets the principles of component modeling, since it does not contain parameters that are not related to the simulated component; it describes the process of simultaneous transfer of vapors and non-evaporated liquids between components; and it does not include empirical relationships requiring data on the dynamics of fuel evaporation under reference conditions. According to the results of a full-scale experiment, the adequacy of the mathematical model developed was confirmed. This model can be used to determine the rational design parameters of the fuel and water injection system, the adjusting parameters of the forced diesel engine that provide the required power, and economic indicators, taking into account the limitations on the magnitude of the mechanical and thermal loads of its parts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Optimization of a Waste Heat Power System under Economic Constraint
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133388 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
A novel thermo-economic performance indicator for a waste heat power system, namely, MPC, is proposed in this study, which denotes the maximum net power output with the constraint of EPC ≤ EPC0, where EPC is the electricity production cost of the [...] Read more.
A novel thermo-economic performance indicator for a waste heat power system, namely, MPC, is proposed in this study, which denotes the maximum net power output with the constraint of EPC ≤ EPC0, where EPC is the electricity production cost of the system and EPC0 refers to the EPC of conventional fossil fuel power plants. The organic and steam Rankine cycle (ORC, SRC) systems driven by the flue gas are optimized to maximize the net power output with the constraint of EPC ≤ EPC0 by using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The optimization process entails the design of the heat exchangers, the instantaneous calculation of the turbine efficiency, and the system cost estimation based on the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Six organic fluids, n-butane, R245fa, n-pentane, cyclo-pentane, MM (Hexamethyldisiloxane), and toluene, are considered for the ORC system. Results indicate that the MPC of the ORC system using cyclo-pentane is 39.7% higher than that of the SRC system under the waste heat source from a cement plant with an initial temperature of 360 °C and mass flow rate of 42.15 kg/s. The precondition of the application of the waste heat power system is EPC ≤ EPC0, and the minimum heat source temperatures to satisfy this condition for ORC and SRC systems are obtained. Finally, the selection map of ORC versus SRC based on their thermo-economic performance in terms of the heat source conditions is provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Thermodynamic Consistency of the Richardson–Duhmann Model for Thermionic Converters
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051087 - 01 Mar 2020
Abstract
In this work, we develop the general theory for analyzing the thermodynamic consistency of the Richardson–Duhmann model for vacuum thermionic energy converters. In addition to the electron fluxes from emitter to collector and vice versa, we calculate the energy and entropy fluxes associated [...] Read more.
In this work, we develop the general theory for analyzing the thermodynamic consistency of the Richardson–Duhmann model for vacuum thermionic energy converters. In addition to the electron fluxes from emitter to collector and vice versa, we calculate the energy and entropy fluxes associated to them. The calculation of the entropy fluxes is what allows us to conclude that the model is consistent by verifying that both at the emitter and at the collector the entropy generation rate is positive. In the process, we review the Richardson–Duhmann model in order to assure that the assumptions we make for calculating the energy and entropy fluxes are consistent. We also generalize the Richardson–Duhmann model in order to consider Fermi–Dirac statistics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy, Exergy and Economic Analyses of a Combined Heating and Power System with Turbine-Driving Fans and Pumps in Northeast China
Energies 2020, 13(4), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040878 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
The combined heating and power (CHP) system with turbine-driving fans and pumps is more efficient and economical in meeting heat demand in cold areas, however, there are no detailed studies that investigate its thermodynamic performance, improvement possibilities and economy. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
The combined heating and power (CHP) system with turbine-driving fans and pumps is more efficient and economical in meeting heat demand in cold areas, however, there are no detailed studies that investigate its thermodynamic performance, improvement possibilities and economy. In this paper, the energy, exergy and economic analysis of a CHP system with turbine-driving fans and pumps operated in Northeast China were conducted to provide insights into improvement options. It is revealed that the boiler is the main source of exergy destruction, followed by the steam-water heat exchangers (SWHE), temperature and pressure reducer (TPR), turbines, and deaerator. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the system are 89.72% and 10.07%, while the boiler’s are 84.89% and 30.04%. The thermodynamic performance of the boiler and turbines are compared with other studies, and the inefficiencies of major components are analyzed and some advice for further improvement is given. As the reference state changes, the main conclusions stay the same. The turbine-driving mode saves an electricity cost of 16,654.08 yuan on 15 December 2018. The effect of electricity price and on-grid price on the saved daily electricity cost is investigated and it proves that the turbine-driving mode is more economical in China. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Exergy assessment and thermo-economic analysis of hybrid solar systems with seasonal storage and heat pump coupling in the social housing sector in Zaragoza
Authors: Amaya Martínez-Gracia
Affiliation: CIRCE Institute, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain

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