Special Issue "Photonic Crystals"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Daniele Martella
Website
Guest Editor
European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy (LENS), National Institute of Optics CNR-INO, Florence, Italy
Interests: liquid crystals; photonic materials; photopolymerizations; photonic crystals; microrobotics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Sara Nocentini
Website
Guest Editor
European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy (LENS), National Institute of Optics CNR-INO, Florence, Italy
Interests: tunable photonics; liquid crystalline polymers; photonic crystals; photolitography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonic crystals (PCs), since they were proposed by John and Yablonovic in 1987, have been deeply studied and demonstrated for application in many fields, such as telecommunication, sensing, and lighting, to name a few. Within these devices, the periodic modulation of the dielectric permittivity determines a photonic band gap (PBG), i.e., the forbidden propagation of light in a selected frequency range. This peculiar feature creates a versatile platform to control and manipulate light in miniaturized high-performance devices by tailoring their cell unit and the material composition. PCs have been proposed in ordered 1D, 2D, or 3D designs as well as in an amorphous and disordered fashion to inspect light behavior in the presence of tailored degrees of disorder. The most common structures present a 2D geometry, enabling integration of other optical functions on chip while a 1D layer stack offers a simple design for reflection/transmission devices, whereas only 3D PCs allow a truly light manipulation in all dimensions.

Interestingly, PCs are not only passive devices, as properly integrating light-emitting sources enables controlling their spontaneous emission (due to the suppression of density of state in the PBG) or enhancing it by engineering PC’s defects as high-quality factor cavities. Another fascinating approach takes inspiration by nature: Structural colors that decorate some natural living systems revealed as mimicking nature always represent a valuable strategy that may reproduce the performances optimized by natural evolution.

At present, many relevant effects and applications have been brought to light, while the growing advances in lithographic techniques and material science continuously enlarge the field of PCs in order to introduce new functionalities. This Special Issue aims to collect original papers and short reviews that point out new approaches in the photonic crystals’ world. The introduction of novel functional materials for PCs and the exploitation of the PBG for appealing effects in active photonics, optical circuitry, sensing or anti-counterfeiting will enrich this Special Issue. Moreover, new fabrication approaches based on self-assembly or customized lithographic techniques will represent another important topic of the issue towards new opportunities of integration and tuning of the PC properties.

Dr. Daniele Martella
Dr. Sara Nocentini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Photonic crystals
  • Active photonics
  • Rewritable photonic crystals
  • Optical property modulation
  • Surface Bloch waves
  • Structural colors
  • Photonic band gap

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Photonic Crystals
Crystals 2020, 10(8), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10080688 - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
The past and present goal of photonic technology stems in the fine and arbitrary control of light propagation within miniaturized devices that can possibly integrate different functionalities [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Polymeric Planar Microcavities Doped with a Europium Complex
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040287 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Organo-metallic europium complex tetrakis (dibenzoyl methide) triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) shows a sharp emission spectrum, which makes it interesting for photonic applications. In this work, we embedded it into all-polymeric planar microcavities and investigated the effect of the photonic environment on its emission [...] Read more.
Organo-metallic europium complex tetrakis (dibenzoyl methide) triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) shows a sharp emission spectrum, which makes it interesting for photonic applications. In this work, we embedded it into all-polymeric planar microcavities and investigated the effect of the photonic environment on its emission spectrum. To this end, submicron-sized EuD4TEA crystals were loaded into a blend of polystyrene and carboxylic terminated polystyrene matrix, which served to stabilize the emitter in the polymer and to make the composite processable. The new composite was then casted by spin-coating as a defect layer in a polymeric planar microcavity. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that fine spectral tuning of the cavity mode on the sharp organometal luminescence is possible and produces spectral redistribution of the fluorophore emission, along with a remarkable cavity quality factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle
High Refractive Index Inverse Vulcanized Polymers for Organic Photonic Crystals
Crystals 2020, 10(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10030154 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Photonic technologies are nowadays dominated by highly performing inorganic structures that are commonly fabricated via lithography or epitaxial growths. Unfortunately, the fabrication of these systems is costly, time consuming, and does not allow for the growth of large photonic structures. All-polymer photonic crystals [...] Read more.
Photonic technologies are nowadays dominated by highly performing inorganic structures that are commonly fabricated via lithography or epitaxial growths. Unfortunately, the fabrication of these systems is costly, time consuming, and does not allow for the growth of large photonic structures. All-polymer photonic crystals could overcome this limitation thanks to easy solubility and melt processing. On the other hand, macromolecules often do not offer a dielectric contrast large enough to approach the performances of their inorganic counterparts. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach to achieve high dielectric contrast distributed Bragg reflectors with a photonic band gap that is tunable in a very broad spectral region. A highly transparent medium was developed through a blend of a commercial polymer with a high refractive index inverse vulcanized polymer that is rich in sulfur, where the large polarizability of the S–S bond provides refractive index values that are unconceivable with common non-conjugated polymers. This approach paves the way to the recycling of sulfur byproducts for new high added-value nano-structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanosphere Lithography for Structuring Polycrystalline Diamond Films
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020118 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper deals with the structuring of polycrystalline diamond thin films using the technique of nanosphere lithography. The presented multistep approaches relied on a spin-coated self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres, which served as a lithographic mask for the further custom nanofabrication steps. Various [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the structuring of polycrystalline diamond thin films using the technique of nanosphere lithography. The presented multistep approaches relied on a spin-coated self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres, which served as a lithographic mask for the further custom nanofabrication steps. Various arrays of diamond nanostructures—close-packed and non-close-packed monolayers over substrates with various levels of surface roughness, noble metal films over nanosphere arrays, ordered arrays of holes, and unordered pores—were created using reactive ion etching, chemical vapour deposition, metallization, and/or lift-off processes. The size and shape of the lithographic mask was altered using oxygen plasma etching. The periodicity of the final structure was defined by the initial diameter of the spheres. The surface morphology of the samples was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The advantages and limitations of the fabrication technique are discussed. Finally, the potential applications (e.g., photonics, plasmonics) of the obtained nanostructures are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle
Magneto-Optical Isolator Based on Ultra-Wideband Photonic Crystals Waveguide for 5G Communication System
Crystals 2019, 9(11), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110570 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents a novel magneto-optical isolator based on an ultra-wideband and high efficiency photonic crystals (PCs) waveguide and gyromagnetic ferrites. The three-dimensional numerical simulation finds that the photonic crystals waveguide’s (PCW) transmission efficiency rises with its height and width. The corresponding experiments [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel magneto-optical isolator based on an ultra-wideband and high efficiency photonic crystals (PCs) waveguide and gyromagnetic ferrites. The three-dimensional numerical simulation finds that the photonic crystals waveguide’s (PCW) transmission efficiency rises with its height and width. The corresponding experiments are performed by using a triangular lattice Al2O3 dielectric posts array in 5G millimeter wave band. The measured transmission efficiency is up to 90.78% for the optimal PCs waveguide structure, which has ultra-wide operating bandwidth from 23.45 to 31.25 GHz. The magneto-optical isolator is designed by inserting two rectangular gyromagnetic ferrites into the PCs waveguide. Due to the contrast between the effective permeability of the left and right circular polarization waves passing through the magnetized ferrite sheets, the ferromagnetic resonance absorption of the forward and reverse waves is different. By using finite element method, the isolation is optimized to be 49.49 dB for the isolator and its relative bandwidth reaches 8.85%. The high isolation, broadband, and easy integration indicate that our designed magneto-optical isolator has significant advantage in 5G communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
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