Science and Technology of Roman Historical Buildings' Coating Materials

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 5005

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Evaluation and Conservation of Cultural Heritage, ICECHIM, 060021 Bucharest, Romania
2. Faculty of Materials Engineering, Valahia University of Targoviste, 130004 Targoviste, Romania
Interests: cultural heritage; ceramics; glasses; mortars; rock weathering; conservation; nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth, Environmental and Resource Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte Sant'Angelo, Ed. L, Via Cintia 26, 80126 Napoli, Italy
Interests: cultural heritage; archaeometry; coservation sciences, applied mineralogy; mortars, ceramics; building materials, glasses; zeolites, x-ray diffraction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, historical buildings contain various geomaterials dating back centuries, many of which are in poor conditions, which is why they need well-documented conservative restoration. Thus, materials such as aggregates, cements, mortars, concretes, bricks, tiles, and building stones are identified and diagnosed in order to determine the best way to preserve them.

This Special Issue is dedicated to medieval Roman mortars, mosaics, pottery, and various coatings materials from Europe and beyond and provides appropriate diagnosis methods for repairing façade defects, defining a proper methodology for repairing defects and building elements. Visual aspects, provenance, fabrication, strength, durability, insulation, and macroscopic and physicochemical properties of building materials will be correlated with chemical composition, crystallinity, size, shape, distribution, and particle orientation.

The construction materials will be quantified via several analytical methods: microscopic techniques (optics, SEM, TEM), spectroscopic methods (XRD, XRF, neutron tomography), spectral techniques (UV-Vis, FTIR, Raman), some of them well equipped for the study of mineralogy, and compositional study methods (GC-MS, GC-MS-TOF, ICP-MS, etc.). Ultrafine particles and nanoparticles (NPs), minerals, and amorphous phases present in medieval Roman ruins are also highlighted, keeping in mind that analysis applied to mortars and ceramics samples from the ruins has shown aluminosilicates, silicates, Fe hydroxides, amorphous phases, and carbonatic phases.

Particularities related to the location of the Roman mortars, mosaics, pottery, and various coating materials will be defined and presented in this Special Issue, to which we invite you to participate.

Prof. Dr. Rodica-Mariana Ion
Dr. João Pedro Veiga
Dr. Concetta Rispoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

12 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
Ancient Roman Mortars from Anfiteatro Flavio (Pozzuoli, Southern Italy): A Mineralogical, Petrographic and Chemical Study
by Giovanna Montesano, Maria Verde, Stefano Columbu, Sossio Fabio Graziano, Luigi Guerriero, Maria Laura Iadanza, Annalisa Manna, Concetta Rispoli and Piergiulio Cappelletti
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111712 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
This research is based on the characterization of ancient mortars from the Anfiteatro Flavio (Pozzuoli) dating back to the 1st and 2nd century CE through a multi-analytical approach involving macroscopic, mineralogical, petrographic, and chemical investigations. The goal that has been set is to [...] Read more.
This research is based on the characterization of ancient mortars from the Anfiteatro Flavio (Pozzuoli) dating back to the 1st and 2nd century CE through a multi-analytical approach involving macroscopic, mineralogical, petrographic, and chemical investigations. The goal that has been set is to deepen knowledge about mortar mix design, the provenance of used raw materials, and secondary minerogenetic processes that have occurred within ancient Roman mortars. Results show that: (i) raw materials for mortar preparation have a local provenance, i.e., Phlegraean Fields area; (ii) mortars can be considered as hydraulic; (iii) calcite presence could be due to a non-complete calcination process, an improper slaking or to exposition of materials to the subaerial environment; (iv) gypsum is due to calcite sulfation process; (v) halite presence is due to marine aerosol exposition. The achieved information testifies that, for at least two centuries, Roman builders considered the identified mortar mix as optimal for their buildings, but also contributes to the understanding of their technical skills and represents an important first step to planning future restoration operations. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 2871 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning Technology Assisted Investigation and Extraction of Human Bone Information in Archaeological Sites at Shenna Ruins, China
by Jiaxin Li, Kaiyuan Li, Fangnan Zhao, Xue Feng, Jingli Yu, Yuhu Li, Xiaolian Chao, Juanli Wang, Bingjie Mai and Jing Cao
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101507 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Three-dimensional laser scanning technology can be used to quickly, efficiently, and accurately obtain spatial three-dimensional information of cultural relics without contacting the target during the scanning process. The results of this study showed that the extraction of human bones from the Shenna ruins [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional laser scanning technology can be used to quickly, efficiently, and accurately obtain spatial three-dimensional information of cultural relics without contacting the target during the scanning process. The results of this study showed that the extraction of human bones from the Shenna ruins via the auxiliary application of three-dimensional scanning technology reduced human intervention and destruction on the site compared with the traditional archaeological human bone packaging and extraction work method. When combined with the application of three-dimensional scanning technology, the original data information extracted on the spot were more comprehensive and accurate. Additionally, the technology provided us with important scientific data which can be used to discuss the phylogenetic composition of the ancient Qiang people in the settlement village, as well as a new applications of ideas for three-dimensional laser scanning technology usage in the field extraction of cultural relics. However, a follow-up study is needed to improve the comparisons of its applications, providing a conventional auxiliary means for cultural relic extraction and a technical means for cultural relic protection evaluation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
Multi-Analytical Study on Excavated Human Bones in the Burial Environment at Shenna Ruins, Qinghai, China
by Jiaxin Li, Ying Zhang, Liang Chen, Yuhu Li, Xiaolian Chao, Juanli Wang, Bingjie Mai and Jing Cao
Coatings 2022, 12(9), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12091269 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Excavated human bones are important materials for revealing information about ancient human food, the ancient environment and the ancient climate, and the origins of ancient humans. Often, the chemical composition and biological characteristics of bones have changed to varying degrees, which means that [...] Read more.
Excavated human bones are important materials for revealing information about ancient human food, the ancient environment and the ancient climate, and the origins of ancient humans. Often, the chemical composition and biological characteristics of bones have changed to varying degrees, which means that they are contaminated and cannot be used for further analysis. Through research on the correlation between human bones excavated from a burial environment and their state of preservation, judging whether the excavated bones are contaminated is a prerequisite for scientific analysis, environmental archeology, and research on ancient human recipes. In this paper, human bones excavated from the Shenna ruins and the contamination of them in the burial environment has been judged using craniofacial measurement characteristics, pH measurement, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform red external light spectrum (FTIR), and stable isotope tests (SIT). However, the organic compositions of the remains at Shenna are decomposed to a large degree, and the inorganic structure has been destroyed, which will eventually cause looseness and porosity, and the compositions of inorganic minerals in the human bones have not been changed or contaminated. The results indicate that the burial environment at Shenna accelerated the deterioration of human bones, but it has not affected the typical character of the human bone, and the human bones extracted can still be used for further trace element testing. Moreover, this can help to reduce the effort required to reveal information about ancient human food, as well as the need for further studies of the paleoenvironment and paleoclimate in the Shenna ruins. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop