Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Surgery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 11999

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pediatric Surgery, "Vittore Buzzi" Children's Hospital, 20154 Milano, Italy
Interests: pediatric gastrointestinal surgery; endoscopic surgery; minimally invasive surgery

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical and Clinical Science ”L. Sacco”, University of Milan, 20157 Milan, Italy
2. Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children’s Hospital “V. Buzzi”, 20154 Milan, Italy
Interests: simulation in pediatric surgery; pediatric surgery research; regenerative medicine in pediatric surgery; child health and surgery and traslational research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pediatric abdominal diseases have various clinical presentations and a broad spectrum of origins. Congenital malformations (due to developmental errors) are usually present in neonates and infants. They can affect the digestive tract, from the esophagus to the anus, determining atresia, malrotation, volvulus, altered innervation, duplications, and abdominal wall defects. Other diseases (hepatic and pancreatic, gastro-esophageal reflux and motility disorders) may be responsible for progressively invalidated surgical pictures. The underlying causes of these conditions are not always well-known, and the genetic link plays an important role. In patients with neurological impairment, we should consider the involvement of many complex neurological determinants (brain–gut axis). The metabolic profile is also gaining attention as a determining factor of abdominal surgical complications that surgeons should consider as early as possible in children (e.g., cholelithiasis and obesity).

All these diseases represent an essential branch of pediatric surgery, of which we are all witnessing a progressive expansion. New technological advancements (e.g., minimally invasive surgery, endoscopic surgery and 3D reconstructions) and the involvement of different medical specialists allow us to provide even better treatments to preserve pediatric specificity. However, we are also facing new challenges with the long-term management of children born with congenital malformations and the increase in the incidence of pathologies that are typical of adults, which present peculiar and sometimes poorly understood characteristics in children. Moreover, we must improve our training courses concerning new technologies.

This Special Issue aims to consider the latest findings in abdominal diseases and surgery in children to explore pediatric pathology across the globe, to evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms and long-term effects of the disease and the therapy, and innovative strategies to obtain effective treatment strategies with minimal invasiveness.

Clinicians and researchers are invited to submit their manuscripts (clinical and research original articles, reviews, editorials, and case reports) to this Special Issue of Children, “Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children.” We believe that your contribution would be significant.

We look forward to receiving your papers,

Dr. Francesca Destro
Prof. Dr. Gloria Pelizzo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • abdominal diseases
  • congenital malformations
  • children
  • pediatric surgery
  • pediatric endoscopy
  • obesity
  • cholelithiasis
  • training

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 5559 KiB  
Article
Quality and Diagnosis on the Lateral View of Pediatric Upper Gastro-Intestinal Series
by Shyam Sunder B. Venkatakrishna, Mohamed Elsingergy, Juan S. Calle-Toro, Rebecca Dennis, Hansel J. Otero and Savvas Andronikou
Children 2024, 11(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11020151 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Background: The standard imaging technique for the diagnosis of intestinal malrotation remains the upper gastro-intestinal series (UGIS). The lateral view is promoted as important for making a diagnosis. For this, the lateral view should be of adequate quality, and radiologists must know the [...] Read more.
Background: The standard imaging technique for the diagnosis of intestinal malrotation remains the upper gastro-intestinal series (UGIS). The lateral view is promoted as important for making a diagnosis. For this, the lateral view should be of adequate quality, and radiologists must know the normal appearance as well as the appearance of duodenal variants, as misdiagnosis may lead to unnecessary surgery. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the quality, findings including the prevalence of the ”descending staircase” configuration and its correspondence to a diagnosis of duodenum redundum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study and was conducted in a large tertiary children’s hospital in the United States. A retrospective review of UGI fluoroscopy exams in children aged ≤ 18 years between January and December 2018 was performed by a pediatric radiologist. First, the lateral view images/cine-loops were assessed independently, followed by the anteroposterior (AP) view. The studies which were designated to have an adequate lateral view were evaluated for configuration of the duodenum and recorded as: normal, abnormal, or normal variant. Also, the presence of a descending staircase configuration was correlated with an AP view for a diagnosis of duodenum redundum. Results: A total of 26 children (26%) (males:16; females:10) with age range 0 to 16 years had adequate lateral views during UGI exams for inclusion. Of the 26, 18 (69%) were reported as normal, 7 (27%) were reported as having a descending staircase and 1 (4%) was reported as abnormal. The AP view demonstrated 2 abnormal studies (1 malrotation and 1 non-rotation), 6 duodenum redundum and 18 normal exams. The one abnormal lateral duodenum was confirmed as a non-rotation on AP view; the second patient with an abnormal AP view had a normal appearance on the lateral view. Conclusions: A total of 26% of UGI studies had adequate lateral views for interpretation. Of these, nearly a quarter (23%) demonstrated the descending stair-case sign corresponding to a diagnosis of duodenum redundum on the AP view. If the lateral view had been used alone, there would have been a missed diagnosis in one patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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12 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Associations between Hospital Setting and Outcomes after Pediatric Appendectomy
by Anshul Bhatnagar, Sean Mackman, Kyle J. Van Arendonk and Sam Z. Thalji
Children 2023, 10(12), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10121908 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Prior studies of associations between hospital location and outcomes for pediatric appendectomy have not adjusted for significant differences in patient and treatment patterns between settings. This was a cross-sectional analysis of pediatric appendectomies in the 2016 Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID). Weighted multiple linear [...] Read more.
Prior studies of associations between hospital location and outcomes for pediatric appendectomy have not adjusted for significant differences in patient and treatment patterns between settings. This was a cross-sectional analysis of pediatric appendectomies in the 2016 Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID). Weighted multiple linear and logistic regression models compared hospital location (urban or rural) and academic status against total admission cost (TAC), length of stay (LOS), and postoperative complications. Patients were stratified by laparoscopic (LA) or open (OA) appendectomy. Among 54,836 patients, 39,454 (73%) were performed at an urban academic center, 11,642 (21%) were performed at an urban non-academic center, and 3740 (7%) were performed at a rural center. LA was utilized for 49,011 (89%) of all 54,386 patients: 36,049 (91%) of 39,454 patients at urban academic hospitals, 10,191 (87%) of 11,642 patients at urban non-academic centers, and 2771 (74%) of 3740 patients at rural centers (p < 0.001). On adjusted analysis, urban academic centers were associated with an 18% decreased TAC (95% CI −0.193–−0.165; p < 0.001) despite an 11% increased LOS (95% CI 0.087–0.134; p < 0.001) compared to rural centers. Urban academic centers were associated with a decreased odds of complication among patients who underwent LA (OR 0.787, 95% CI 0.650–0.952) but not after OA. After adjusting for relevant patient and disease-related factors, urban academic centers were associated with lower costs despite longer lengths of stay compared to rural centers. Urban academic centers utilized LA more frequently and were associated with decreased odds of postoperative complications after LA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
9 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Gallbladder Stones in Pediatric Age: An Emerging Problem: The Risk of Difficult Cholecystectomy and the Importance of a Preoperative Evaluation
by Camilla Todesco, Francesco Molinaro, Francesca Nascimben, Gianluca Gentilucci, Mario Messina, Andrea Cortese, Vito Briganti and Stefano Tursini
Children 2023, 10(9), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10091544 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The need for cholecystectomy during pediatric age has significantly increased in the last two decades. As biliary pathology increases, the probability of complicated cholecystectomies increases too. The aim of this article is to analyze our experience with difficult laparoscopic pediatric cholecystectomy, focusing on [...] Read more.
The need for cholecystectomy during pediatric age has significantly increased in the last two decades. As biliary pathology increases, the probability of complicated cholecystectomies increases too. The aim of this article is to analyze our experience with difficult laparoscopic pediatric cholecystectomy, focusing on the importance of an accurate pre-operative imaging study. We retrospectively analyzed all patients affected by cholelithiasis who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the Pediatric Surgery Department of San Camillo Forlanini hospital of Rome and Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena from 2017 to 2022. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI), recovery data, laboratory tests, imaging exams, surgical findings, post operative management and outcome were taken into account. Overall, 34 pediatric patients, with a mean age of 14.1 years (6–18 years) were included, with a mean BMI of 29. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography and a liver MRI with cholangiography (cMRI). We identified five cases as “difficult cholecystectomies”. Two subtotal cholecystectomies were performed. Cholecystectomy in pediatric surgery can be difficult. The surgeon must be able to find alternative strategies to total cholecystectomy to avoid the risk of possible bile duct injury (BDI). Pre-operative imaging study trough ultrasound and especially cMRI is crucial to recognize possible difficulties and to plan the surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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12 pages, 1246 KiB  
Article
Avoiding High Pressure Abdominal Closure of Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects—One Step Further to Improve Outcomes
by Raluca-Alina Mocanu, Cătălin Cîrstoveanu, Mihaela Bizubac, Ionuț Fernando Secheli and Nicolae Sebastian Ionescu
Children 2023, 10(8), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10081384 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
The main goal of surgical treatment for gastroschisis and omphalocele is the reduction of viscera in the abdominal cavity and closure of the abdomen, but the challenge is to succeed without the detrimental effects of increased intraabdominal pressure. In this regard, we performed [...] Read more.
The main goal of surgical treatment for gastroschisis and omphalocele is the reduction of viscera in the abdominal cavity and closure of the abdomen, but the challenge is to succeed without the detrimental effects of increased intraabdominal pressure. In this regard, we performed a retrospective study for all patients admitted for gastroschisis and omphalocele to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of ‘Marie Sklodowska Curie’ Emergency Clinical Hospital for Children, from January 2011 until June 2021. Our aim was to highlight the presence of postoperative abdominal compartment syndrome. We observed that six out of forty-seven patients developed clinical signs of abdominal compartment syndrome, five associated with primary closure and one with staged closure with a polyvinyl chloride patch. Following the results, we decided to implement the trans-bladder measurement of intraabdominal pressure to avoid closing the abdomen at pressures higher than 10 mmHg in order to prevent the development of abdominal compartment syndrome. We consider that there is still place for the improvement of congenital abdominal wall defects management and that the measurement of intraabdominal pressure might help us reach our goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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15 pages, 1035 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Anal Sphincter with High Resolution Anorectal Manometry and 3D Reconstruction in Patients with Anorectal Malformation
by Anna Maria Caruso, Denisia Bommarito, Vincenza Girgenti, Glenda Amato, Ugo Calabrese, Adele Figuccia, Fabio Baldanza, Francesco Grasso, Emanuela Giglione, Alessandra Casuccio, Mario Pietro Marcello Milazzo and Maria Rita Di Pace
Children 2023, 10(6), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061037 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Background: Patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) need long-term follow-up, in order to evaluate fecal continence; the main predictors of longer-term success are the type of ARM, associated anomalies and sacral integrity. Three-Dimensional High Resolution Anorectal Manometry (3D-HRAM) gives detailed information on pressure on [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) need long-term follow-up, in order to evaluate fecal continence; the main predictors of longer-term success are the type of ARM, associated anomalies and sacral integrity. Three-Dimensional High Resolution Anorectal Manometry (3D-HRAM) gives detailed information on pressure on the anal complex profile. Our objective was to analyze anal sphincter activity in ARM patients with 3D-HRAM establishing the correlation between manometric and clinical data. Methods: Forty ARM patients were submitted to 3D-HRAM: manometric, anatomical and clinical scores were correlated with each other and with the bowel management response (BM). Results: A positive correlation between all scores and types of ARM was found: in high ARM and in patients with spinal anomalies (regardless to ARM type) lower scores were reported and even after BM they did not achieve good continence. Conclusions: 3D-HRAM gives detailed data on the functional activity of the anal sphincter complex. Our study revealed a correlation between manometric parameters and clinical outcomes, confirming spinal malformations and ARM type as the most important prognostic risk factors for a bad outcome. Specific sphincteric defects can also be explored with manometry, allowing for tailored bowel management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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16 pages, 9761 KiB  
Article
Echo-Endoscopy Combined with Virtual Reality: A Whole Perspective of Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration in Children
by Francesca Destro, Raffaele Salerno, Valeria Calcaterra, Sandro Ardizzone, Milena Meroni, Margherita Roveri, Ugo Maria Pierucci, Alberta Zaja, Francesco Rizzetto, Alessandro Campari, Maurizio Vertemati, Paolo Milani and Gloria Pelizzo
Children 2023, 10(4), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040760 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Introduction: Endoscopic procedures are performed more frequently in children due to technological advances that can be safely performed in an adequate setting with a support of a multidisciplinary team. Pediatric indications for ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and EUS (endoscopic ultrasound) occur mainly due [...] Read more.
Introduction: Endoscopic procedures are performed more frequently in children due to technological advances that can be safely performed in an adequate setting with a support of a multidisciplinary team. Pediatric indications for ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and EUS (endoscopic ultrasound) occur mainly due to congenital malformations. In a pediatric case series, we report the application of EUS combined with duodenoscopy, eventually associated with ERCP and minimally invasive surgery, highlighting the importance of defining a tailored dedicated management pathway for each patient. Patients and methods: A series of 12 patients, managed at our Center in the last three years, were evaluated, and their management was discussed. Results: EUS was performed in eight patients and permitted the differential diagnosis of duplication cysts and the visualization of the biliary tree and pancreatic anatomy. ERCP was attempted in five patients: in one case, it permitted the preservation of pancreatic tissue, postponing surgery and in three patients, it was technically unfeasible. MIS (minimally invasive surgery) was performed in seven patients, two with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE). Precise anatomical definition and the possibility of surgical simulation and team sharing were evaluated under VR HMD (Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display) in four cases. Conclusions: Exploration of the common bile duct in children differs from that of the adult population and combines echo-endoscopy and ERCP. The integrated use of minimally invasive surgery in the pediatric area is necessary for the whole management perspective in complex malformations and small patients. The introduction in the clinical practice of a preoperative study with Virtual Reality allows a better survey of the malformation and a tailored treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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Review

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17 pages, 44963 KiB  
Review
Recurrent Sigmoid Volvulus in Children—Our Experience and Systematic Review of the Current Literature
by Jonathan Hencke and Steffan Loff
Children 2023, 10(9), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10091441 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus (SV) occurs rarely in children. After encountering two cases of recurrent SV, we reviewed the literature to define the recurrence risk, identify outcome predictors and to give treatment recommendations. We found 256 cases reported in children (mean age 10.2 years, gender [...] Read more.
Sigmoid volvulus (SV) occurs rarely in children. After encountering two cases of recurrent SV, we reviewed the literature to define the recurrence risk, identify outcome predictors and to give treatment recommendations. We found 256 cases reported in children (mean age 10.2 years, gender ratio (m:f) 2.3:1). Associations exist with Hirschsprung disease (HD) in 10%, neurodevelopmental disorders in 10.9% and chronic constipation in 10.2%. Common symptoms and clinical signs were abdominal pain (85%), distension (85%), tenderness (54%) and vomiting (59%). Signs of peritonitis were present in 14% and indicated a gangrenous sigmoid (X2 = 45.33; p < 0.001). A total of 183 had abdominal radiographs, and 65% showed a positive ‘coffee-bean-sign’. Contrast enemas were positive in 90%. A total of 124 patients underwent laparotomy; in 41 cases, the sigmoid was gangrenous and associated with more complications (X2 = 15.68; p < 0.001). Non-operative treatment (NOT) like endoscopic, fluoroscopic or rectal tube decompression was performed in 135 patients and successful in 79% with a 38–57% recurrence rate. A total of 73 patients subjected to elective surgery: 50 underwent sigmoid resection; 17 had surgery for HD. Clinicians should consider SV in all children with abdominal pain, distension and vomiting. Gangrene carries a higher morbidity. After successful NOT we recommend counselling about the recurrence risk and definitive surgery should be advised. HD is frequent in newborns but sometimes found in older children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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Other

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14 pages, 2011 KiB  
Systematic Review
Laparotomy versus Peritoneal Drainage as Primary Treatment for Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Gonzalo Solis-Garcia, Agostino Pierro and Bonny Jasani
Children 2023, 10(7), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10071170 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Aim: to systematically review and meta-analyze the impact on morbidity and mortality of peritoneal drainage (PD) compared to laparotomy (LAP) in preterm neonates with surgical NEC (sNEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Methods: Medical databases were searched until June 2022 for studies comparing [...] Read more.
Aim: to systematically review and meta-analyze the impact on morbidity and mortality of peritoneal drainage (PD) compared to laparotomy (LAP) in preterm neonates with surgical NEC (sNEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Methods: Medical databases were searched until June 2022 for studies comparing PD and LAP as primary surgical treatment of preterm neonates with sNEC or SIP. The primary outcome was survival during hospitalization; predefined secondary outcomes included need for parenteral nutrition at 90 days, time to reach full enteral feeds, need for subsequent laparotomy, duration of hospitalization and complications. Results: Three RCTs (N = 493) and 49 observational studies (N = 19,447) were included. No differences were found in the primary outcome for RCTs, but pooled observational data showed that, compared to LAP, infants with sNEC/SIP who underwent PD had lower survival [48 studies; N = 19,416; RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.79–0.90; GRADE: low]. Observational studies also showed that the subgroup of infants with sNEC had increased survival in the LAP group (30 studies; N = 9370; RR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.72–0.91; GRADE: low). Conclusions: Compared to LAP, PD as primary surgical treatment for sNEC or SIP has similar survival rates when analyzing data from RCTs. PD was associated with lower survival rates in observational studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abdominal Diseases and Surgery in Children)
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