Special Issue "Catalytic Gasoline Particulate Filters"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Valeria Di Sarli E-Mail
Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125, Napoli, Italy
Phone: +39 0817622673
Fax: +39 0817622915
Interests: Catalytic Gasoline Particulate Filters; Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters; Design of Novel Catalytic and Hybrid (Homogeneous-Heterogeneous) Micro-Combustors; Explosions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are rapidly penetrating the European and U.S. markets due to their superior fuel efficiency when compared to the conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, as well as their ability to be implemented in hybrid cars. One of the main concerns related to GDI vehicles is the toxicity of fine particulate matter (PM) emissions originating from this engine type. In order to meet the stringent limits imposed by Euro 6 in terms of particulate number (PN) emissions, GDI vehicles require the installation of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs). PM, which is mostly made of soot, is first trapped in the GPF during the phase of filtration and then eliminated via oxidation during the phase of filter regeneration.

Although the designs of GPF and DPF (diesel particulate filter) may be similar, there are substantial differences between gasoline and diesel exhaust in terms of PM mass emissions, particle size and reactivity, and temperatures. These differences may lead to completely different and still unknown mechanisms of filtration and regeneration. Moreover, as for diesel vehicles, even in the case of GDI vehicles, catalytic (i.e., catalyst-coated) filters are needed to avoid uncontrolled soot combustion with local temperature excursions that may be sufficiently high to damage the filter. However, due to the presence of the upstream three-way catalytic converter (TWC), there is much less O2 and essentially no NO2 available for soot oxidation in GPFs. This makes traditional diesel soot oxidation catalysts unsuitable for GPFs. Therefore, one major scientific challenge consists in the development of catalysts that are effective for gasoline soot oxidation at low O2 levels and in the absence of NO2.

This Special Issue aims at presenting recent advances in the field of catalytic GPFs. Particular emphasis is placed on catalysts for soot oxidation under GPF conditions. However, all fundamental and applicative aspects pertinent to filtration and regeneration are covered (this also applies to uncoated GPFs). Authors with expertise in this research field are warmly encouraged to submit their original manuscripts to Catalysts.

Dr. Valeria Di Sarli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • gasoline particulate filters (GPFs)
  • gasoline soot
  • catalysts for gasoline soot oxidation: powders and coated GPFs
  • kinetics of thermal and catalytic oxidation of gasoline soot
  • filtration
  • GPF regeneration
  • soot-catalyst contact
  • soot-catalyst-flow field interaction

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory and On-Road Evaluation of a GPF-Equipped Gasoline Vehicle
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080678 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
The introduction of a solid particle number limit for vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines resulted in a lot of research and improvements in this field in the last decade. The requirement to also fulfil the limit in the recently introduced real-driving [...] Read more.
The introduction of a solid particle number limit for vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines resulted in a lot of research and improvements in this field in the last decade. The requirement to also fulfil the limit in the recently introduced real-driving emissions (RDE) regulation led to the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in European vehicle models. As the pre-standardisation research was based on engines, retrofitted vehicles and prototype vehicles, there is a need to better characterise the actual emissions of GPF-equipped GDI vehicles. In the present study we investigate one of the first mass production vehicles with GPF available in the European market. Regulated and non-regulated pollutants were measured over different test cycles and ambient temperatures (23 °C and −7 °C) in the laboratory and different on-road routes driven normally or dynamically and up to 1100 m altitude. The results showed that the vehicle respected all applicable limits. However, under certain conditions high emissions of some pollutants were measured (total hydrocarbons emissions at −7 °C, high CO during dynamic RDE tests and high NOx emissions in one dynamic RDE test). The particle number emissions, even including those below 23 nm, were lower than 6 × 1010 particles/km under all laboratory test cycles and on-road routes, which are <10% of the current laboratory limit (6 × 1011 particles/km). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Gasoline Particulate Filters)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
European Regulatory Framework and Particulate Matter Emissions of Gasoline Light-Duty Vehicles: A Review
Catalysts 2019, 9(7), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9070586 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The particulate matter (PM) emissions of gasoline vehicles were much lower than those of diesel vehicles until the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in the early 2000s. At the same time, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines started to become popular in the [...] Read more.
The particulate matter (PM) emissions of gasoline vehicles were much lower than those of diesel vehicles until the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in the early 2000s. At the same time, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines started to become popular in the market due to their improved efficiency over port fuel injection (PFI) ones. However, the PM mass and number emissions of GDI vehicles were higher than their PFI counterparts and diesel ones equipped with DPFs. Stringent PM mass levels and the introduction of particle number limits for GDI vehicles in the European Union (EU) resulted in significant PM reductions. The EU requirement to fulfill the proposed limits on the road resulted to the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in EU GDI models. This review summarizes the evolution of PM mass emissions from gasoline vehicles placed in the market from early 1990s until 2019 in different parts of the world. The analysis then extends to total and nonvolatile particle number emissions. Care is given to reveal the impact of ambient temperature on emission levels. The discussion tries to provide scientific input to the following policy-relevant questions. Whether particle number limits should be extended to gasoline PFI vehicles, whether the lower limit of 23 nm for particle number measurements should be decreased to 10 nm, and whether low ambient temperature tests for PM should be included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Gasoline Particulate Filters)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Ash Metal Influence on Soot Oxidative Reactivity in Catalyzed Gasoline Particulate Filters
Authors: Noah Bock and William F. Northrop
Affiliation: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Correspondence: [email protected]

Title: Soot Oxidation from Gasoline Engine: An Overview
Authors: Roberto Matarrese *, Lidia Castoldi * and Luca Lietti
Affiliation: Dipartimento di Energia, Laboratory of Catalysis and Catalytic Processes, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano, Italy
Correspondence: [email protected]; [email protected]

Title: Carbon Oxidation over Core/Shell CeZrO2 Catalyst/Soot Mixtures
Authors: Eleonora Aneggi1,*, Mattia Squecco 1, Jordi Llorca 2 and Alessandro Trovarelli 1
Affiliation: 1 Dip. Politecnico di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università di Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy; 2 Inst. de Tècniques Energètiques and Center for Research in NanoEngineering, Univ. Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Correspondence: [email protected]

Title: Ceria-Praseodymia Catalysts for Total Oxidations (Tentative)
Authors:
Martini F., Sartoretti E., Piumetti M.and Bensaid S.*
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Torino 10129, Italy
Correspondence:
[email protected]

Title: CFD-based Simulation of the Regeneration Dynamics of a Catalytic Gasoline Particulate Filter
Authors:
Valeria Di Sarli 1,*, Almerinda Di Benedetto 2
Affiliation: 1 Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125, Napoli, Italy; 2 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, Napoli, 80125, Italy
Correspondence:
[email protected]

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